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Glossary of Alex Anatomy Lab Exam 2

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-Telencephalon and Diencephalon
-Mesencephalon
-Metencephalon and Myencephalon

-Telencephalon= cerebrum
-Diencephalon= thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
-Mesencephalon= mesencephalon
-Metencephalon= pons, cerebellum
-Myencephalon= medulla oblongata



Cerebrum
-83% of brain\'s mass
-contains white and gray matter
-has fissures, sulci
-contains sensory & motor areas/cortexes, special sensory regions, AA\'s, integration centers (Broca, etc.)


Cerebral Cortex
-outer layer of cerebrum made up of gray matter (no myelinated axons)
-place of cognition, conscious thought, memory and highest level control of muscles
Basal Nuclei
-gray matter deep in cortex
-subconscious control of skeletal muscle and coordination of learned movement patterns (ex. playing piano)


Primary Motor Cortex
send info from premotor area to brainstem and spinal cord (is the precentral gyrus)

Primary Sensory Cortex
-conscious perception of somatic sensory input (touch, pressure, pain, vibration, taste and pressure)
-is the post central gyrus


Visual Cortex
-occipital lobe
–receives information from visual receptors


Auditory Cortex
-temporal lobe
–receives information from sound receptors


Olfactory and Gustatory Cortexes
-Olfactory=information from odor receptors

-Gustatory=information from taste receptors



Association area vs. sensory cortex
- association areas give mean­ing to/make asso­ci­a­tions with a sen­sa­tion

-sensory cortex makes you aware of a sen­sa­tion

Somatic Sensory AA and Somatic Motor AA
-Somatic Sensory AA= recognition of sensation
-Somatic Motor AA= putting together primary motor patterns to form complex learned movements




Visual AA & Auditory AA
Visual AA= identify things we see, allows you to read individual letters on this page as words

Auditory= hearing things; ex. identify a person by his/her voice

-Broca\'s Area
-Wernicke\'s Area
-Prefrontal Cortex

-Broca\'s Area= speech center, regulates breathing and movement for speech; if damaged you cannot talk but you know what you wanna say
-Wernicke\'s Area= language area, where you physically form words; if damaged what you say doesn\'t make sense
-Prefrontal Cortex= coordinates info from AA\'s; allows us to predict our actions

Thalamus
-gateway to cerebral cortex
-acts as a relay center for all sensory nerve impulses traveling to the cerebral cortex; filters input
Intermediate Mass
connects right and left halves of the thalamus
Pituitary gland
-endocrine gland located in sella turcica
-controls growth
Pineal Gland
makes melatonin; important for circadian rhythm (body clock)
Cerebral Peduncles
contain motor tracts and connect the midbrain to the cerebellum

Cerebellar Peduncles
nerve fibers that carry all signals between cerebellum and the rest of the brain
Medulla Oblongata
-continuous with spinal cord
-involved in control of heart rate, blood pressure regulation and breathing


Ventricles
-four expansions of the brain’s central cavity
-filled with CSF and lined with ependymal cells


Subarachnoid Space
-space between arachnoid mater and pia mater
-contains CSF
Meninges
-composed of 3 maters (dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater)
-protects the brain
Cranial Nerves 1-3
1=Olfactory, sensory, smell
2=Optic, sensory, vision
3=Occulomotor, mixed, left/right eye movement & raises upper eyelid

Cranial Nerves 4-6
4=Trochlear, motor, downward eye movement
5=Trigeminal, mixed, 3 divisions are ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular; chewing, face feeling, blinking, sneezing

6=Abducens, eye movement (abduction)


Cranial Nerves 7-9
7=Facial, mixed, 2/3 taste/facial expressions
8=Vestibulocochlear, sensory, balance/hearing
9=Glossopharyngeal, mixed, motor fibers to pharnyx/salivary gland/taste 1/3

Cranial Nerves 10-12
10=Vagus, mixed, nerve goes beyond neck, serves heart/digestive system/breathing
11=Spinal Accessory, motor, neck/upperback, prob is strugging shoulders
12=Hypoglossal, motor, tongue muscles

Dorsal Root Ganglion
Group of soma in the PNS on the dorsal side of the spinal cord
Palpebrae
Eyelid
Lacrimal Caruncle
=sandman glands; where the gunk is in the morning
Levator Palpebrae
muscle that lifts the eye lid
Lacrimal Apparatus
produces, distributes, and removes tears

3 Tunics of the Eye
-Fibrous (cornea, scelera)
-Vascular (choroid, lens, ciliary muscles, iris, pupil)
-Neural (rods, cones, optic disc, fovea centralis)

Aqueous Humor vs. Vitreous Humor
-aqueous= anterior cavity of eye that maintains shape; flows around pupil and drains through Canal of Schlemm
-vitreous= posterior cavity of eye that maintains shape
Neural Pathway from Optic Nerve to Visual Cortex
1. Optic nerve
2. Optic chiasma
3. Optic tract
4. Lateral geniculate nuclei
5. Optic radiation
6. Visual cortex






Tympanic Membrane
-tissue that divides outer ear and middle ear
-assits with hearing
Auditory Ossicles
-convert sound vibrations, from tympanic membrane to the oval window, into pressure waves so sound can be deciphered by the body
-3 parts= malleus, incus, & stapes
Auditory Tube
equalizes air pressure
Oval Window
-connective tissue that connects the middle ear to the inner ear
Endolymph vs. Perilymph
-endolymph= a clear fluid within the membranous labyrinth

-perilymph= a fluid within the space between the bony and membranous labyrinths.

Semicircular Canals
-3 of them
-purpose= control balance (like a gyroscope)
Organ of Corti
-organ in inner ear that contains hair cells that pick up vibrations and tell the brain it\'s hearing sound
-stereocilia= the hairs
Auditory Pathway from Vestibulocochlear Nerve to the Auditory Cortex/Motor Output
1. CN 7
2. Cochlear Nuclei
3. Inferior Colliculus
4. Motor output via spinal cord (reflex) OR medial geniculate nucleus
5. If medial geniculate nucleus then to auditory cortex (temporal lobe)



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