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Glossary of AUGUST BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE

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(T/F) Axons have a nucleus, ER, golgi apparatus, or ribosomes.
FALSE; axons don't have a nucleus, ER, golgi apparatus, or ribosomes.
Why do axons have an abundant amnt of microtubules and actin filaments?
Because these are essential for axonal transport (that is microtubules) and cytoskeletal structure (that is actin filaments), respectively.
Microtubules are essential for axonal transport.
TRUE
Microfilaments are essential for cytoskeletal structure.
TRUE
A portion of eukaryotic mRNA has the following base sequence: 5'-ACAUCUAUGCCACGA-3'. What could result from a mutation that changes the underlying base to A?
Since we don't know the reading frame, its possible that the AUG sequence in the original length of mRNA served as a start signal, in which case changing the U would result in failure to initiate translation. Without knowing the reading frame, we cannot rule out the fact that this change will reuslt in a stop codon (UAA).
What are the start codons?
AUG
What are the stop codons?
UAA, UGA, UAG
Aproteins destined to be secreted into the RER lumen have a specila sequence of AA's aat their _____ terminus. This sequence is recognized by what?
Amino; this sequence is recognized by the SRP which binds to a receptor on the RER, attaching ribosome and the nascent polypeptide to the ER membrane.
How are the phosphate for translation allotted?
1P for intiaiton; 2P for each AA to be added to the chain; and 2P required for chain formation (#1 to carry the AA to the ribsoome; #2 to translocated)
For 100aa chain, how many ATP total?
1+2(100)+2(99)=399 ATP total
70s ribosomes: what is the makup?
30S (light unit) and 50S (heavy unit)
bacillus
rod-shaped
Metaphase requires what?
metaphase requires microtubules for sister chromatid separation.
Amoeboid motility and contractile processes require what?
amoeboid motility and contractile processes (such as cytokinesis) requires microfilaments
TIP: When see "recombination", make sure they are referring to meiosis.
#
Microtubules are required for what?
intraceullular organelle movement and spindle formation;
Microfilaments are requered for what?
amoboid movement
What are the characteristics of eukaryotic flagella?
they are cytoplasmic extensions w/ a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules; ATP hydrolysis is required for their movement; and similar in structure to cilia
Prokaryotes and eukaryotic flagella are different from each other in that…
prokaryotic flagellar are formed from chians of protein called flagellin, and are attached to the cell surface (as opposed to being cytoplasmic extensions)
When does coevolution occur?
when the characteristics of one species influences the evolution of another species; ie. One species makes a virus less virulent.
Competition results when organisms from the same species overlap in their utilization of insufficient resources.
TRUE
(T/F) Better surviving a diseases is not "outcompeting" b/c no resources are being competed over.
TRUE
(T/F) Membrane's impermeability to Na is essential to the RMP.
TRUE
(T/F) Aps begin at the dendritic spine.
FALSE; Aps begin at the axon hillock… Dendritic spine is where the NT has its effect.
What are the solutes that are responsible for the osmotic gradients in the renal medulla?
urea and NaCl
If H+ is not secreted into urine such as when no carbonic anhyydrase is present, then what happens?
~90% of serum fluid to enter Bowman's capsuile; Filtrate is composed of water and small solutes such as salts, nitrogenous wastes, glucose, aa's, and …
What is the proximal tubule permeable to?
salts, urea, and water
Proximal tubule: substances actively transporte out of the tubule or reabsorbed include glucose, AA's, and Na+; H2O passsively follows.
True.
What is the length of the myosin which doesn't change during muscle contraction.
The A band.
What is that band that is the region of actin that doesn't overlap with myosin.
I band; during contraction, this distance decreases as the filaments slide past each other.
What is the sarcomere length defined by.
The distance btw z lines; it is the shortening of this unit which determines muscle contraction.
What must bund to the ribosome before translation can occur?
tRNA
During oxidative phosphorylation, the final acceptor electron acceptor from ____ is ___.
During oxidative phosphorylation, the final acceptor electron acceptor from NADH is O2.
During fermentation, what is the final acceptor?
an organic compound
CO2 dissolved in plasma decreased the pH through conversion to what?
carbonic acid.
# During oxidative phosphorylation, the final acceptor electron accepotr from NADH is O2.
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# During fermentation the final acceptor is an organic compound
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# Carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma decreased the pH through conversion to carbonic acid.
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# Plasmids are extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules.
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# Organelles are membrane bound cellular components present only in eukaryotes.
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# dsDNA is not produced thru transcript and translation, its done so thru replication.
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# Nuclear membrane disappears in metaphase, after the visible condensation of the chromosomes in prophase.
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# Erythrocytes must be continually replenished by stem cells in the marrow.
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# Mitosis can occur in haploid cells unlike meiosis, which can occur in diploid cells.
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# Replication of organelle DNA occurs in G1, nculear DNA is S phase.
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# Many enzymes are thermolabile, that is, they don't function at higher temperatures even within the normal physiological range.
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# Antibodies may coat a foreign particle so that it is taken up by phagocyte cells. Antibodies serve as markers causing phagocytic cells to engluf and desotry foreign particles or cells.
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# The iris adapt to light in a fraction of a second (very quick!)
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# Rods are resposnbiel for dark vision (inceased sensitivity) and black/white vision.
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# Cones are resposnible for visual acuity and color vision.
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# Photoreceptor has open Na channels in resting state.
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# Transudction of lifht energy occurs in the retina where photoreceptors respond to incident light by decreasing their steady release of NT.
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# hematocrit = red blood cells
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# as velocity decrease, viscosity increases
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# In the disorder diabetes inspidus, ADH secretion is secerely deficient and the result is decreased solute concentration in the urine. ADH causes water to be reabsorbed from the urine. Without it, the urine is excessively dilute.
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# What makes ATP a particularly good energy carrier is that it has an intermediate trans for potential. This allows high energy phosphate carriers like creatine phosphate to drive the synthesis of ATP from ADP + Pi by transferring their phosphate group t
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# ATP's hydrolysis doesn't release the largest amnt of energy of any molecule in the body. Creatine phosphate's fere energy of hydrolysis is -10.3kcal/mol compared to ATP's 7.3kcal/mol.
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# Creatine phosphate is a high energy buffer b/c it maintains the level of available high energy phosphates. During intense muscule exertions, creatine phosphate replenishes the muscle's ATP by transfering its phosphat grp to ADP.
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# In order to spontaneous transfer its phosphate grp to ADP, creatine phosphate's free energy of hydrolysis must be more negative than ATPs.
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# Ca2+ binds to troponin which causes a conformation change that allows tropomyosin to shifts its position, exposing the myosin binding site on actin.
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# Mg2+ is required for myosin's ATPase function to be effective.
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# ATP binds to the myosin heads.
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# Women treated over a long period of time with relatively large doses of estrogen don't ovulate. This is probably due to inhibition of gonadotropin secretion by estrogen.
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# Estrogen acts at the hypothalamic and pituitary leads to inhibit the secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus & FSH and LH from anterior pitutitary. This is a class negative feedback loop.
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# The preovulatory LH surge is essential for ovulation.
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# Preovulatory decline of FSH is due to the increasing oncentration of estradiol. Estrogen inhibits FSH by negative feedback.
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# In the absence of pregnancy, menstruation normally occurs. This is due to the decline of progesterone and estradiol, 2 hormones required for maintenance of endometrium.
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# Progesterone and estradiol are two hormones that are required for maintenance of endometrium.
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# Ovarrian follicle produces estradiol.
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# Corpus luteum and placenta produce both estrdiol and progesterone.
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# Adrenal medula produces catecholamines (epi and norepi).
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# FSH and LH are prduced in anterior pituitary.
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# {psteropr [ituitary: ADH and oxytocin
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# Pineal gland: melatonin (sleep cycles)
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What does Lac+ signify?
Denotes a bacterium which can metabolize lactose normally; it can grow in a medium which contains lactose as its primary energy source.
# Auxotrophs have a mutation that prevent them from growing on minimal media (requires an auxiliary trophic substance… trophic means relating to nutrition).
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# Prototrophs: wildtype; can grow on minimal media ("proto" means 1st in time).
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# hetertrophs: organism which grows using energy derived from another organism's metabolism.
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# plants are generaly autotrophs while animals are hetertrophs; bacteria can be either.
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# Chemotrophs: derive their energy from an inorganic carbon source (a chemical source)
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# Penicillin blocks the last step in bacterial peptidoglycan cell wall function, disrupting cell wall formation.
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# Tumor intiators cause mutations, or changes in the DNA sequence of a cell.
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# Cancer cell may or may not lose their ability to hormonal control (ie: breast cancer which is treated with hormonal therapy).
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# Only mutations in DNA cause permanent change that can be passed down to daughter cells.
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# Middle ear is composed of the ossicles.
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# Inner ear is the site where the sound wave becomes a traveling wave.
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# Hair cells transduce the impulse in the traveling wave into a nerve impulse.
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# Low frequencies cause the most vibration at the apical end, farthest form the eardrum.
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# Hair cells in different locations along the basilar membrane resord sound of different frequencies.
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# Damage to the tympanic membrane would cause conduction deafness and hearing loss would be uniform over all frequencies.
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# Process of translating a sound wave to a nerve imulse: 1) movememnt of the auditory ossicles (which are in the iddle ear); 2) Pressure changes of the inner ear caused by ossicle movement; 3) displacement of the basilar membrane caused by pressure chang
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# Cerebral cortex is composed of nerve cell bodies, and appears grey. Proccesses higher learning such as speech, sound, sight, learning, etc… and is the seat of consciousness.
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# Cerebellum: site of coordination of movement and balance
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# Hypothalamus: site of regulation of homeostasis.
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# Cerebral white matter is composed of myelinated axons (it is the lipid rich myelin which makes it white). Not considered processesing center.
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# Cerebral white matter is area of complex intertwingin pathways leading from one processing center to another (ie. From cerebellum to cortex).
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# Myelin, which consists of Schwann cell membranes, prevents an AP from occuring within a segment of an axon. As a result, the AP must leap from one node of Ranvier to the next (no myelin at the nodes; depol can occur at nodes)
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# Can't use Nernst equation for RMP it blocks K channels b/c Na/K ATPase plays large factor.
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# Lymphastic system has no role in cicurlation of RBCs.
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# RBCs don't escape blood vessels b/c they are large and lack the amoeboid motility of white blood cells.
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# Lymphastic system: allows for white blood cells to return to blood circulation; maintains protein concentration in the blood by returning leaked proteins from institium to the blood circulation; transports fats from digestive tract in the circulatory s
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# Bone marrow in the site of synthesis of all cells of the blood stream.
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# BP is much higher than interstitial fluid volume, and the concentration of protein is also higher in the blood => proteins ltend to leak out of blood vessels and cannot diffuse back in.
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# In the case of liver diseases or protein deficiency, the concentration of plasma proteins (ie. Albumin_ falls and edema results (think about this!)
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# Thoracic duct drains the entire left side of the body.
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# Lymphatic capillaries are the starting point of lymph return to the blood.
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# Right thoracic duct drains only the right shoulder area and right side of the heat.
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# Lymphatic capillaries are more permeable. They are meant to uptake proteins, whereas blood capillaries were designed to retain proteins.
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# Lympho nodes are the pace where antigen sampling and the early stages of the immune response occur.
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# Arg-: lacks enzymes to synthesize argineine; Lac-: dindicates a bacterium which can't grow in a media which contains lactose, usu b/c it lacks the enzyme lactase.
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# thiol: -SH
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# acetylene is when C is triple bonded to another C
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# NH4+ is electrophilic b/c its positively charged.
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# n-Hexan & 2-methyl pentane are isomer: small magnitude of deltaH_carb of 2methylpentane is consistent with a higher degree of branching.
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# dbl bond: carbon atoms are sp^2 hybridized and have 3 equivalent orbitals and a fourth unhybridized p orbiatl.
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# The heat of hydrogenation is defined as the amnt of heat released upon addition of H2 across a dbl bond.
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# Saponificatoin of the ester occurs with NaOH and isolation of the free acids are achieved using a mineral acid such as HCl.
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# Absorption at 1735 cm^-1 is characteristic of an ester group.
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# Aldol rxns are fast and occur in either acidic or basic media. Therefore, aldehydes added to dilute acid will undergo aldol condensation forming a hydroxylated aldehyde. (see notes)
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# Enantiomers have identical physical properties ecept for the direction in which they rotate plane polarized light => enantiomers would have same pI values.
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# Benedict's test for reducing sugars works like this: an oxidized copper reagent is reduced bya surgar's aldehyde or ketone, and the aldehyde or ketone is oxidized in the process. NEGATIVE for carboxylic acids; POSITIVE for aldehydes/ketone.
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# Meso cmpds are achiral, even though they have chiral centers; this is b/c of their internal plane of symmetry.
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# A meso cmpd must have an even # greater or equal to 2 chiral centers.
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# D, L, alpha, beta rae all naturally occuring sugars. Alpha and beta forms are said to be anomers of each other. Refer to configuration of carbon #1, the anomeric carbon when subar is in the turanes or pyranose (ring) form.
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# Protonate propanoic acid using acid to allow the sodium salt to be remoced from the solution before spectroscopy.
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# Compounds to acids, alcohols aren't acidic enoguh to bind signimficant amount of Na+ compared to acids.
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# C=O 1700 cm^-1; C-OH 3000cm^-1
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# Larger k means rxn is less reversible.
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# Amides: carboxylic acid & amine; more stable than esters.
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# Amides are more stable than carboxylic acids => amide bonds don't easily undergo hydrolysis.
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# Most biologically active sugars have the D configuration; D config: last chiral carbon has the same configuration as D-glyceraldehyde.
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# Few examples of biologically active L sugars (rare): L-galactose: constitutent of some polysaccharide structures; L-arabinase: a pentose is an important part of cells walls and plant glycoproteins.
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# If a rxn is not stereospecific, will get two forms of the enantiomer. If the rxn is sterospecific, only one enantiomer will be formed => optically active molecule.
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# Phosphofruktokinase catalyzes the comitted step in glycolysis so if it is inhibited, it will in turn inhibit glycolysis.
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# A high fructose-6-phosphate concentration will leak to increase phosphofructokinase activity and enhanced glycolysis so there will be more ATP ==> increased ATP/AMP ratio.
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# syncytia: immune impaired cells.
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What is the net effect of viral glycoproteins expressed on the surface of HIV infected T cells fused with CD4 receptors on healthy cells forming a nonfunctional cell mass (syncytia formation) ?
Net result is an effective depltion of T cell activity; therefore the following would support this: the glycoproteins of the virus bind almost irrevsibly to CD4 receptor molecules in vitro.
# B cells are antibody producing components of the immune system.
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# Immune system refers to a group of nonspecific and specific defense mechanisms mediaetd by specialized cells, such as B cells, T cells, and macrophages that travel through the body via the circulatory system.
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# Centrioles: cylindrical strucutres whose role, if any, in animal cell mitosis is unclear to date.
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# Lysosomes: respsonsible for the disgtion of various cellular and extracellular metabolites as well as the degradation of unwanted toxins.
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# Macrophages: phagocytic monuclear white cells that serve accesosry roles in cellular immunity; they are NOT invovled in antibody production.
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# Cis/trans arrangement of substitutents around a dbl bond is known as geometric isomerism, and have different physical properties attributed to a difference in their dipole moments and symemtry.
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# HOT BASIC POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE: nonterminal alkenes will be oxidatively cleaved to form two molecules of carboxylic acids.
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# Diols are created with alkenes treated with cold dilute potassium permanganate.
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# Vinylic cation: an intermediate in which the positive charge id adjacent to a double bond.
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# Technique that can be used in helping an epidemiologist determine that the infectious agent was bacterial or viral: can hybridize the infection agent w/ radiolabeled probes specific for the genes encoding viral structual proteins; only viral genes will
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# Bacteria hav ea signle circular chromosome located in a region of the cell known as the nucleoid.
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# Prokaryotic ribosomes are structurally different from eukaryotic ribosomes, and this difference is often exploited in the development of effective antibodies.
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# To test whether straing were effected by antibiotics, the experimeneter needed to use a medium that the strains could definitely grow on in the absence of antibiotics.
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# Calcitonin lowers blood Ca2+ by promoting the incorporation of Ca2+ into bone.
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# Parathyrodi hormone (PTH) increases blood ca2+ conc by promoting its removal from bone and its release into the blood stream. It also converts vitamind D3 into its active form, which stimulates the absorption of Ca2+ in the intestines.
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# PTH converts vitamind D3 into its active form, which stimulates the absorption of Ca2+ in the intestines.
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# Prolactin: hormone; synthesized by anterior pituitary gland; stimulates the secretion of milk from female mammary glands.
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# ACTH: secreted by anterior pituitary; stimulates the production of hormones from the adrenal cortex.
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# T4 (thyroxin) is a thyroid hormone involved in regulating metabolism.
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# Pulmonary arteries deliver the blood to the capillary beds surrounding the alveli, which is where gas exchange occurs: CO2 is traded for O2.
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# 3 primary germ layers which arise during the gastrulation stage of embryonic development: endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm.
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# Endoderm: innermost layer of cells from which the following strcutres aris: lining of digestive tract, respiratory tract, liver, thyroid, pancreas, bladder.
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# Mesoderm: middle layer of cells give rise to skeletal muscle, dermis, bone, blood, gonads, kidneys, circulatory system.
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# Ectoderm: gives rise to nail, hair, outer layer of skin, lens of eye, pitutiary gland, lining of mouse and nose, nervous tissue, adrenal medulla.
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# Someone with Rh+ is ok with getting Rh+ blood (since body won't make antibodies to it).
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# Ca2_ ions bind to troponin causing a conformational change within the sarcomere that causes the tropomyosin strands to shift and expose themyosin binding sites on actin => myosin binds to actin and the sarcomere contracts.
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# Permanent actin-myosin crossbridges occur only in the absence of ATP and leads to the development of rigor mortis.
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# Exocytosis is not a passive process and so requires ATP =?> release of Ach via exocytosis requires ATP (abundance of mitochondria in the nerve terminal supply the ATP).
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# Not all eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria: red blood cells lack mitochondria.
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# Neurons are aerobinc cells does require the presence of mitochondria.
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# Diffusion is a passive process => ATP is not required.
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# If a student's receptors for sensation of "hot" pain had severed, then the student would have felt no pain and his hand would have remained on the hot plate.
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# Though the sensation of pain is also conveyed to the sensory cortex via a different pathway, this pathway also begins w/ the stimulation of the hot pain receptors in the skin. So if the receptors were severed , the message would not be sent to the brai
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# Sensation of pain is the result of an impulse being transmitted to the brain's sensory neuron. If one of these pathways were severed at any point, the impulse wouldn't be sent to the brain, and the sensation of pain would not be felt.
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# Different in reaction time corresponds to two factors: 1) distance the impulse must travel; 2) # of synapses the impulse must cross
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# Withdrawl reflex in response to intense heat by passes the sensory area of the brain synapsing directly in the spiral chord.
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# Sensation of pain is transmitted more slowly to the sensory cortex to a morotor neuron.
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# Crossed exterior reflex: concomittant extension of the opposite limb.
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#Chorination of butane results in formation of 1-chlorobutane and 2-chlorobutane since butane posses two types of hydrogen that can be substituted. (Tertiary is most reactive though so 2 chlorobutane is major product).
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# Rxn that occurs thorugh a free radical intermediate will form a racemic mixture b/c (halogen) an add to either side of the molecule.
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# Eukaryotic cells contain genes known as protooncognes which normally code for proteins involved in the regulation of growth. If any of these protooncognese become transpformed into an oncogene, then that cell is said to be tumorigenic.
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# Tumorigenic cell: one that gives rise to a tumor.
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# Tumor cells don't obey rules of normal cell growth and divide indefnitely.
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# Second messenger system typically involve G proteins and cyclic AMP.
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# Promoter is a region of DNA involved in the binding of RNA polymerase to intiate transcription. Promoter region is located approx 10-35 base pairs before the 1st coding base of the gene. The strength of the rpomoter describes the frequency at which RNA
# Strong promoter increases the frequency with whihch RNA polyermase binds to a region and transcribes the gene.
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# Immunization with a hormone extract will not cause an infection. Viruses and Bacteria cause infections.
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# RIA (radioimmunoassay): technique use for measuirng hormone concentration; as [unlabled hormone] increase in sampe, % of antibody bound radiolableed hormone decreases.
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# During typical measurement, FSH stimultes the maturation of an ovarian follicle during a typical menstrual cycle.
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# During pregnancy, mesntural cycle is inhibited b/c progesterone which is secreted by corpus luteum during the 1st trimester of pregnancy and secreted by placenta during remainder of pregnancy, inhibits FSH secretion ==> [FSH] very low during pregann
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# Bohr effect: term used to describe hemoglobulins decrease in O2 affinity at high plasma concentration of CO2 at low pH.
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# Amino acid is subjected to electrophoresis @ pH 8.5 and is observed to migrate to the anode. The isoelectric point of the amino acid is less than 8.5. Amino acid is negatively charge (negative on carbonyl group and neurtral NH3); inorder to make it int
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# In males, release of LH and FSH is relatively constant b/c they stimulate two continuous processes: 1) testosterone synthesis; 2) spermatogenesis.
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# In females, LH & FSH are released in a cyclic fashion. Prior to ovulation, FSH and LH secretion continuously increase.
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# FSH: stimulates follicle development.
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# LH: stimulates the development of the corpus luteum following ovulation.
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# In females, secretion of LH and FSH both drop sharlply following ovulation and doesn't beging to rise again until the onset of the next menstural cycle.
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# Cocci: spherical
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# Bacilli: rod-like (such as e coli)
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# spirochetes or spirilla: helical (least common of three).
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# Pancreas synthesizes and secretes the following enzymes: trypsingogen (protein), cymotrypsinogen (protein), carboxy peptidase (protein), amylase (carbohydrates), lipase (fats).
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# Small intestine secretes enterokinase, enzyme that converts trypsinogen => trypsin
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# Trypsin converts chymotrypsinogen to its active form, chymotrypsin.
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# If have pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, distion of lipids will be more effected since lipase is only produced in pancreas.
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# If analysis of viral genome is 27% C, 27% A, 23% U, 23% G, this is SINGLE stranded RNA and not DNA.
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# ADH aka vasopressin
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# Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect changes in the extracellular osmolality, particularly [Na]. When [Na]o increases, one gets increased ADH secretion and increased urge to drink water.
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# ADH alters the permeability of renal collecting ducts to water.
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# When no ADH present => collecting duct walls are impermeable to water and dilute urine formed.
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# Na is excreted regardless of the level of ADH.
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# Initially, the filtrate looks very much like plasma. Only the large protein and cells are retained in the blood stream; smaller molecules like glucose and aa's, and all ions, are filtered into the nephron tubule.
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# Concentration of glucose is the same in the initial filtrate and plasma (since its filtered into the nephtron tubule).
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# Immunologlobulins which are large proteins one retained in the blood, so their concentration in the filtrate=0.
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# Na is small ion and is freely filtered so its conc in intial filtrate sis ame as plasma.
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# A severe hemorrhage would decrease the volume of the extracellular fluid, but the concentration of the remaining fluid wouldn't change.
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# Upon severe blood loss, the sympathetic division of the ANS would cause constriction of the arteries in an effort to maintain blood pressure. Also, due to reduced blood volume, blood flow would be reduced leading to a reduction in filtration and urine
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# Decreased blood volume => decreases blood flow => decreased filtration rate => urine output
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# The reabsorption of glucose is mediated by protein transporters in the proimal tubule of the nephron and doesn't depend on the medullary osmotic gradient.
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# Decreased osmolality of medulla => decrease water drawn out of the collecting ducts => decrease concentration of urine.
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# If use radiolabeled thymidine, it will only be incorporated if new DNA is synthesized and this will occur only if the cell is going to divide.
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# If a cell line doesn't respond in any way to Factor X, either normal or mutant; it is probably cause the cells lack a Factor X receptor.
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# If a cell line doesn't respond to a Factor when added, it could be because it lacks a receptor or b/c it is already producing and secreting the factor into its medium and can't increase its response any further (saturation). If it does decrease its rat
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# The best evidence for a causual relationship btw the mutation and cancer is to show that in the presence of the mutation, cancer (unregulated proliferation) occurs whereas in the absence of the mutation there is no cancer.
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# p+q=1; p^2+2pq+2^2=1 where p and q are allele frequencies.
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# Natural selection can only operate if there is genetic diversity (will not occur if all alleles are homozygous)
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# It takes one generation to establish a H-W equilibrium.
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# Mutagenizing is likely to create many harmful mutation; never good idea w/ complex organisms.
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# If 2 loci differ, it is not enough of a reason to do anything without further analysis b/c variation at two loci out of 1000 is very minimal.
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# unchanged steroconfiguration implies that the carbon remained chiral throughout the rxn (therefore it had to have been sp^3 hybridized since there are the only ones that can be chiral).
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# An oxidizing agents is 2 or more highly electronegative atoms directly bonded together. IE: HNO3, HClO4, O3 are all strong oxidizing agents; H3PO4 is a weak oxidizing agent.
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# During RNA splicing, introns are removed and exons are conencted together.
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# Splicing of hnRNA from a single gene can be variable. Alternative splicing can create different versions of a protein within a single cell or different versions of the protein in different cell types.
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# Each antibody has two antigen binding sites; can form bridges that effectively tie many antigen molecules together. When antibody is cleaved so antigen binding sites are separated from constant region, no longer can crosslinking occur.
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# Insulin functions to reduce blood glucose levels (by allowing cells to take glucose from the blood).
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# Glucocorticoids funciton to increase blood glucose by mobilizing glycogen stores and promoting fat catabolism to spare glucose.
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# Liver is the primary storage site for glycogen.
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# The effect of glucocorticoids is to keep blood glucose elevated during stress conditions.
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# If human adults have little x tissue, a genetic defect in the function of this tissue wouldn't have a significant effect.
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# All mammals generate heat thru muscle contraction.
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# Ach hydrolysis funcitons to reduce the duration of time that Ach spends in the synaptic cleft, not the frequency with which it is released.
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# Rapid turnover of Ach is necessary to discriminate btw the end of one impulse and the beginging of another, this discrimination would be impaired if AchE inhibitors are present resulting in a single long stimulation of the muscle.
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# Blocking Ach receptors would have no effect on the frequency with which Ach is released.
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# Blcking Ach receptors would reduce the depolarization of the end place.
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# Ach inhibitor will not affect the frequency in which Ach is released.
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# Enzymes/proteins are fairly large and would be too big to fit thru an ion channel.
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# When a neuron is stimulated and many Ach vessicles fuse with the membrane to release the NT, the neuron membrane gets a little larger. To return the membrane to its original size,to help recycle NT, and help recreate the vessicles, reuptake of NTs via
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# Na t-butoxide is a strong base and will react with the weak acids so the best solvent to use for the formation of t-butyl metyl ester w/ Na butoixide is benzene (inert to the alkoxide).
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# For substitution to be favored over elimination, there must be a PRIMARY fragment without beta branching.
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# Alkoxides are better nucleophiles than their protonated counterparts.
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# When asked what gas if formed, look at the reaction!!!
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# Uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport is a heat production mechanism in brown fat.
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