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Glossary of AP world 1st semester

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The human species was characterized in the Paleolithic Age by all of the following EXCEPT
the development of agricultural-based economies.
the development of simple stone and wooden tools.
the ability to communicate with speech.
the development of agricultural-based economies
The Mesolithic, or Middle Stone, Age spanned from
80,000-40,000
8000-5000 B.C.E.
12,000-8000 B.C.E.
4000-1500 B.C.E
12,000-8000 B.C.E.
The emergence of agriculture, or the Neolithic Revolution, caused all of the following
an increase in the specialization of political, economic, and religious functions.
the disappearance of hunter-gatherer communities.
a population
the disappearance of hunter-gatherer communities.
The Neolithic Revolution first occurred in
China.
Europe.
Middle East.
North Africa.
Middle East
Metal tools were preferred over wood and stone tools for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
they were sharper and more precise.
metal hoes and other tools allowed farmers to work the ground more efficiently.
they made superior weapo
they were easier for ordinary people to produce in mass at home.
Which of the following does not define a civilization?
writing systems
political units capable of ruling large regions
the development of cities
more equality between social classes
more equality between social classes
The Tigris-Euphrates civilization, Sumeria, produced the first
monotheistic religion.
writing system.
irrigation system.
village structure.
writing system.
Egyptian civilization differed from Mesopotamian civilization by stressing
trade and science.
intense religious practice.
the utilization of slave labor.
more centralized and durable empires.
more centralized and durable empires
Which river-valley civilization was characterized by isolation?
Hwang-Ho
Sumeria
Nile
Indus
Hwang-Ho
As the most influential of the smaller Middle Eastern regional cultures, the Jews were characterized most by
a large, centralized state.
a strong military tradition.
monotheism.
an expanding population throughout the Middle Ea
monotheism.
In the Paleolithic Age, hunter-gatherers could support large populations and elaborate societies.
False
One sign of the revolutionary quality of agriculture as a system of production was the very slowness of its sprea
True
The first civilization developed along the bank of the Nile River.
False
Most early civilizations were characterized by the existence of agriculture, significant cities, writing systems, and more formal states.
True
Having started in 3500 B.C.E., civilization developed initially in four centers-the Middle East, Egypt, North America, and northwestern Japan.
False
Sumerian political structures stressed a loosely organized empire, ruled by a queen who claimed divine authority.
False
Many of the accomplishments of the river-valley civilizations had lasting impacts, which are fundamental to world history even today.
True
There was no difference in the impact that Indus and Hwang-Ho river-valley civilizations, respectively, had on later civilizations in India and China.
False
The Phoenicians, Lydians, and Jews were examples of smaller Middle Eastern cultures that were capable of surviving and flourishing when the great empires were weak.
True
Monotheism is the belief in a single divinity that was introduced by the Jewish people.
True
One characteristic that differentiated classical civilizations from the earlier river-valley societies was
they were agricultural.
there was a higher rate of literacy.
there was less warfare.
they created larger political stru
they created larger political structures, capable of controlling more territory.
A major factor in China's development of the first elaborate classical societies was
an absence of religious activity.
its ability to remain isolated and avoid outside invasion.
a stable political leadership.
a reduction in Ch
its ability to remain isolated and avoid outside invasion.
The Chinese view of nature stressed
the scientific control and domination of nature
harmony and balance
nature must be ignored
nature was determined by God
harmony and balance
Classical Chinese civilization was ruled by all of these EXCEPT
the Shang Dynasty.
the Han Dynasty.
the Zhou Dynasty.
the Qin Dynasty.
the Shang Dynasty.
A major feature of the classical Chinese economy was
state support for merchant and artisan classes.
a series of international trading networks.
a high level of technology.
very little social stratification.
:
a high level of technology.
The Qin and Han dynasties were both characterized by
increasing trade with the rest of the world.
a powerful centralized governance.
the formation of popular political parties.
a disdain for science and art.
a powerful centralized governance.
The Qin Dynasty was marked by all of the following EXCEPT
the decrease in power held by regional rulers and independent armies.
an increase in the economic status of the peasant communities.
the incorporation of Hong Kong into the Ch
an increase in the economic status of the peasant communities.
China's classical period gave rise to all of the following intellectual traditions EXCEPT
Confucianism.
Five Classics.
Buddism.
Daoism.
Buddism.
Besides the "mean people," which of the following groups were considered to have the least status in classical China?
merchants
students
peasants
artisans
merchants
All of the following constituted a function of the state in Han China EXCEPT
detachment from the lives of the Chinese masses.
civil -service examinations.
promoting Confucian philosophy.
attack on the local warrior-landlords.
detachment from the lives of the Chinese masses.
All of the following defined the formative period, or Vedic and Epic ages, of Indian civilization EXCEPT
consistently high levels of agricultural output.
the development of Sanskrit.
an embryonic caste system.
the rise of Budd
consistently high levels of agricultural output.
The first ruler of the Maurya Dynasty was
Chandragupta.
Alexander the Great.
Ashoka.
Gautama Buddha.
Chandragupta.
The Maurya Dynasty differed from the Gupta Dynasty in that
it attacked Buddhist beliefs.
it ruled a larger territory.
it was imposed by conquerors from Greece.
it refused to develop a strong army.
it ruled a larger territory
Classical India's political climate was characterized most by
democratic institutions.
a strong centralized government.
a politically astute population.
an array of regional political cultures.
an array of regional political cultures.
The Indian caste system functioned as a political institution by
creating a widespread interest in constitutional issues.
unifying the subcontinent under a single government.
promoting a belief in individual rights.
enforcing
enforcing rules about social behavior.
Hinduism was defined by all of the following EXCEPT
a belief in reincarnation.
a toleration for moneymaking.
an attack on all other religions.
it was the religion of India's majority.
an attack on all other religions.
Buddhism differed from Hinduism by not believing
in the caste system.
in nirvana.
in holy leaders.
in the importance of moral obligations.
in the caste system.
Indian trading networks expanded to include all of the following EXCEPT
southeast Asia.
China
the Middle East.
Russia.
Russia.
Which of the following does NOT describe important features of Indian art?
opposition to the use of animal figures
links to religious beliefs
influences from other cultures' styles
sensuality
opposition to the use of animal figures
Compared to China, India
had more contact with other societies and civilizations.
lacked regional diversity.
had a more flexible social order.
was more secular in outlook.
had more contact with other societies and civilizations
If the Greek genius was in politics, the Roman genius was
engineering.
democracy.
poetry.
science.
engineering
Greek politics was noted for its formation of
the emperor system.
democratic city-states.
a feudal social order.
the monarchy.
democratic city-states
The Roman Empire
tolerated local politicians and religious diversity.
set up a military draft to supply the Roman legions.
prevented foreigners from trading within the empire.
insisted that all inhabitants become Roman citizen
tolerated local politicians and religious diversity.
The senate of republican Rome particularly represented
the merchants and businessman.
the landed aristocracy.
the emperors.
the urban workers.
the landed aristocracy
The most characteristic political form in the classical Mediterranean world was
democracy.
aristocratic assemblies.
tyranny
monarchy.
the landed aristocracy
6 . Classical Mediterranean society differed from classical China in all of the following ways EXCEPT
a more elaborate legal framework.
a diversity of political systems.
the idea of active citizenship.
the rejection of religio
the rejection of religious belief.
This Greek philosopher suggested that human reason could approach an understanding of the perfect formsthe absolutely True, Good, and Beautifulthat he believed underlay nature.
Socrates
Aristotle
Ptolemy
Plato
Plato
Greek society registered special advances in
military weaponry.
religious thought.
science.
Latin literature.
science.
From a Confucian viewpoint, the Roman Empire might have been criticized for placing too much confidence in
public works functions.
laws rather than trained officials.
diving backing for the emperor.
the harsh punishment of cri
laws rather than trained officials
Roman slaves were used for all of the following EXCEPT
work in the mines.
military service.
household care and tutoring.
agricultural labor.
military service
Between 550 and 400 B.C.E., classical civilizations produced all of the following seminal thinkers EXCEPT
Socrates.
Confucius.
Buddha.
Muhammad.
Muhammad.
Civilization pushed forward entirely independent of the three great classical civilizations in
the Americas.
northern Europe.
Japan.
northeastern Africa.
the Americas
The decline of the three classical civilizations between 200 and 600 C.E. were all characterized by
the spread of disease.
outside invasions.
the rise of Christianity.
centralized, unrepresentative government.
outside invasions
One important early symptom of Rome's decline was
the weakness of the eastern portion of the Empire compared to the west.
the use of slave labor.
the replacement of republican rule by an Empire.
the drop in population.
the drop in population.
The first kingdoms in Africa below the Sahara showed the influence of
Egypt and Hellenism.
Rome and Phoenicia.
the flight of Jews from Israel.
Indian merchants and missionaries.
Egypt and Hellenism
The end of the Gupta Empire differed from the decline of Rome in that it did NOT involve
a change in political institutions.
outside invasion.
the introduction of a new religion.
the weakening of central government.
the introduction of a new religion.
Despite major differences, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism all show interest in
a strong priesthood.
life after death.
clearly organized church structures.
absolute hostility to the worship of religious images and spirits
life after death.
Compared to Hinduism, Christianity is more likely
disapprove of other belief systems.
see nature as superior to humans.
approve of sexual pleasure.
believe women are morally superior to men.
disapprove of other belief systems
The eastern portion of the Roman Empire experienced less decline than the west for all the following reasons EXCEPT
the east had more active trade.
the east resisted the spread of Christianity.
the east faced less pressure from barba
the east resisted the spread of Christianity
All of the following constitute distinctive features of late-Roman Christianity EXCEPT
intolerance for competing beliefs.
belief in a divine trinity.
a weak hierarchy of church officials.
an appeal to less fortunate and poor s
a weak hierarchy of church officials.
The local leaders of the Islamic religion were
agents of the caliphs bureaucracy.
mystical hermits.
scholars and lawgivers.
bishops called Ramadan.
scholars and lawgivers.
The Arabs burst into larger Middle Eastern history came with the life of
Harun al-Rashid.
Muhammed.
Ali.
Umar.
Muhammed.
In 622, Muhammed fled to
Jerusalem.
Baghdad.
Medina.
Mecca.
Medina.
Following Muhammed's death, early Middle Eastern civilizations were characterized most by
state-run legal codes.
the development of durable political institutions.
bureaucratic structures.
the expansion and conquest of foreign
the expansion and conquest of foreign territory
The Abbasid Dynasty was marked by all of the following EXCEPT
the development of an influential centralized state.
the use of professional soldiers and slaves for troops.
the spread of Islam among non-Muslims.
moving the Musli
the development of an influential centralized state.
Building on the Koran, Islamic rulers gradually developed an elaborate body of law know as the
ulema.
Sufism.
hadj.
Sharia.
Sharia.
The five "pillars" of Islam included all of the following EXCEPT
the fast of Ramadan.
prayer three times a day.
the belief in one God, or Allah.
at least one pilgrimage to the Holy City of Mecca during a lifetimethe
prayer three times a day.
Political disunity in the Middle East stemmed from
the Sunni-Shi'ite split.
over-ambitious Imams.
Sufi mysticism.
pervasive legalism.
the Sunni-Shi'ite split.
Rationalist philosophers in the Middle East
were persecuted by the caliphs as heretics.
explored how much truth could be known through reason.
argued that laboratory experiment and observation formed the most important source of know
explored how much truth could be known through reason.
Which of the following was NOT well developed Arab art form?
palace architecture
vocal music
portrait painting
humorous poetry
portrait painting
Which religion had NOT won converts in Southeast Asia by 1400?
Islam
Christianity
Hinduism
Buddhism
Christianity
During the centuries after the fall of the Guptas, the average Indian lived under which of the following kinds of rulers?
a regional prince
a city-state
an aristocratic council
an emperor
a regional prince
In reaction to the competition of Islam, Hindu leaders
pioneered in new scientific findings.
stressed their scholarly achievement.
developed new contacts with popular devotion.
loosened the caste system.
developed new contacts with popular devotion
All of the following might be argued as strengths of the caste system EXCEPT
helping to assure that the most talented people would rule.
helping to regulate society when governments were weak.
limiting friction among different racial
helping to assure that the most talented people would rule
Continuities in Indian civilization from the classical period to the post-Gupta centuries included all of the following EXCEPT
diversity of languages.
the importance of Buddhism as a significant religion.
a strong peasant village gov
the importance of Buddhism as a significant religion.
Which of the following modern countries is NOT in Southeast Asia?
Korea
Indonesia
Malaysia
Vietnam
Korea
The main influence of India on Southeast Asia turned out to be
centralized empires.
Hinduism.
Buddhism.
hostility to Islam.
Buddhism.
Which of the following was NOT a factor in Islam's gains in Southeast Asia by 1400?
military conquest
the reduction of Indian independence during the Delhi Sultanate
a strong commercial presence
fervent missionary piety
military conquest
Hindus in India objected to Islam on all grounds EXCEPT
Muslim attitudes toward alcohol.
the Muslims attitude toward pork.
the Muslim practice of veiling and secluding women.
the Muslim disregard for Hindu spirituality.
the Muslim disregard for Hindu spirituality.
The Southeast Asian empire Srivijava included all the islands EXCEPT
Borneo.
Vietnam.
Sumatra.
Java.
Vietnam.
The Kalihari Desert is located in
Europe
North Africa.
Southern Africa.
Asia
Southern Africa.
By what date were Muslim traders traveling across the Sahara Desert to acquire African products?
200 B.C.E.
1400
700
1570 C.E
700
What great city emerged in the southern Sahara because of the trade across the Sahara Desert?
Timbuktu
Cairo
Rome
Mecca
Timbuktu
The growth of Ghana was based on
its conversion to Christianity.
its role as a military colony of Carthage.
the control of the slave trade between Europe and sub-Saharan Africa.
its control of the gold trade between the Medite
its control of the gold trade between the Mediterranean and sub-Saharan Africa.
What kingdom arose in the Sudan following the decline of Ghana in 1200s?
Axum
Songhai
Ethiopia
Mali
Mali
Which of the following regions converted to Islam?
Axum
South Africa
Byzantium
Sudan
Sudan
Which of the following monarchs traveled to Mecca with camels loaded with gold dust?
Sunni Ali
Sundiata
Mahmud of Ghur
Mansa Musa
Mansa Musa
Which of the following is a Bantu kingdom in the gold-producing area of southern Africa?
Mali
Ethiopia
Zimbabwe
Carthage
Zimbabwe
Which kingdom was a Christian state in Africa?
Morocco
Ethiopia
Benin
Songhai
Ethiopia
How did Africa acquire many of its slaves?
it traded with Europe
they were bought from Indian merchants
families were enslaved in a hereditary basis
they were prisoners captured in war
they were prisoners captured in war
The significance of the Byzantine Empire included all of the following EXCEPT
the empire's capital at Constantinople as a major urban center.
the development of Orthodox Christianity.
the ability of the empire to spread its cultural
the empire's conquest of the Ottoman Empire and its inclusion of all of the Middle East.
Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the cultural influence of the Byzantine Empire?
The empire's most important cultural and political successor was Russia.
The Byzantine Empire spread its political control throughout
The empire's most important cultural and political successor was Russia.
The capital of the Byzantine Empire and its commercial center was located at
Rome.
Baghdad.
Nicaea.
Constantinople.
Constantinople
The Byzantine Empire began
in the fourth century C.E., with the founding of Constantinople.
in the ninth century, with the missionary work of Cyril and Methodius.
in the fifth century C.E., with the fall of Rome.
in the first
in the fourth century C.E., with the founding of Constantinople
Which of the following represents one of Justinian's accomplishments?
the issuance of a new law code
the conquest of Gaul
the banning of prostitution within the Byzantine Empire
the rebuilding of Rome
the issuance of a new law code
What people provided the most serious challenge to Byzantine authority in the Balkan peninsula?
the Bulgars
the Huns
the Magyars
the Arab Muslims
the Arab Muslims
Cyril and Methodius were responsible for what accomplishment?
the conversion of Poland and Czechoslovakia to Roman Catholicism
the creation of a written script for the Slavic language
the conversion of Poland and Czechoslovakia to Or
the creation of a written script for the Slavic language
Who was Rurik?
the Mongol commander responsible for the conquest of Kievan Russia
the Kievan monarch responsible for a codification of laws
the legendary Scandinavian who became the first king of Kievan Rus
the Kievan monarch
the legendary Scandinavian who became the first king of Kievan Rus
When did the Mongols conquer Kievan Russia?
1500
1236
1453
1071
1236
Eastern European culture, literature, and art
is primarily religious.
emphasizes a strong rationalistic current.
is nonexistent because of a lack of writing script.
is very scientific.
is primarily religious.
Following the fall of Rome, where was the center of the post-Classical West?
Greece
in the former Roman colony of Spain
in France, Germany, and the Low Countries
in Italy, particularly Rome
in France, Germany, and the Low Countries
The manorial system was the system that
described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers.
defined relationships between members of the military elite.
secular authorities used to name bishops.
described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers.
One of the few technological innovations of the Middle Ages was a plow that permitted deeper cultivation of the soil called the
two-field.
investiture.
aratus.
moldboard.
moldboard.
Vassals were
greater lords within the military elite who commanded military bands.
grants of land given to lesser members of the military elite in return for military service.
members of the military elite who received protection and
members of the military elite who received protection and aid in return for military service.
What Frankish monarch was able to establish a substantial empire in 800?
Clovis
Charles Martel
Pepin III
Charlemagne
Charlemagne
How did the intellectual endeavors of medieval scholars differ before and after 1000?
Before 1000, scholars were limited to copying ancient texts, but after 1000, they produced a greater synthesis of philosophical-rationalism and theology.
Before 1000, scholars were limited to copying ancient texts, but after 1000, they produced a greater synthesis of philosophical-rationalism and theology.
Medieval parliaments represented all of the following EXCEPT
nobles
urban merchants.
poor peasants and serfs.
clergy
poor peasants and serfs
What institutions were responsible for the regulation of apprenticeship, guarantee of good workmanship, and limitation of admission to various occupations?
guilds
church
serfs
monasteries
guilds
Which of the following was NOT true of women's experience in the Middle Ages?
Women's monastic groups provided an alternative to marriage.
Women sometimes played an important role in local commerce.
Women's work remained vital to the
Women led religious services.
Which of the following did NOT increase the power of the feudal monarchs?
central bureaucracies
professional armies
parliaments
taxes
parliaments
Which of the following dynasties followed after the fall of the Sui?
T'ang
Han
Sung
Shang
Sung
Excessive military conquest and high taxation led to
the reunification of China under the Shang Dynasty.
a widespread Buddhist rebellion.
massive rejection of the Confucian scholar-gentry.
the downfall of the Sui Dynasty
the downfall of the Sui Dynasty
Which of the following statements concerning the T'ang Dynasty's attitude toward Buddhism is most accurate?
Although early emperors favored Buddhism, later emperors persecuted Buddhism as an economic threat to the state.
From the outset, Bu
Although early emperors favored Buddhism, later emperors persecuted Buddhism as an economic threat to the state.
4 . Which of the following statements concerning the economy of China during the T'ang-Sung era is NOT accurate?
The amount of land under cultivation and the productivity of Chinese agriculture increased.
The level of urbanization in China
The Chinese transportation and communication network deteriorated
Which of the following was NOT a technological innovation of the T'ang-Sung era?
paper
the abacus
explosive powder
the suspension bridge
paper
Japan began borrowing from China's culture
in the first century C.E.
in the ninth century B.C.E.
in the third and fourth centuries B.C.E.
in the fifth and sixth centuries C.E.
in the fifth and sixth centuries C.E.
By the twelfth century, what Japanese family dominated the Japan?
Minamoto
Yamato
Ashikaga
Fujiwara
Minamoto
Samurai were
aristocratic families who dominated the central administration at Heian.
professional troops who served the provincial military elite.
provincial military commanders based in small fortresses.
curved swords introd
professional troops who served the provincial military elite
The rise of the feudalism in provincial Japanese society
created a class of free farmers with private land holdings throughout Japan.
frustrated the development of artisan and merchant classes.
produced greater social mobility among
produced frequent periods of warfare.
Which of the following dynasties ruled the Korean kingdom after the fourteenth century?
Han
Yi
T'ang
Sui
Yi
During the post-Classical period, societies in the Americas
experienced the initial contacts that led eventually to European invasion of the New World.
remained entirely separate from those of the Old World.
failed to develop imperia
remained entirely separate from those of the Old World.
The society that replaced the Olmecs in Central America was the
Mayan
Aztec
Incan
Roman
Mayan
What was the main function of Chichen Itza?
the Aztec capital
the Incan record-keeping system
the Polynesian settlement
the Mayan ceremonial center
the Mayan ceremonial center
What civilization did the Aztecs succeed in central Mexico?
Olmec
Toltec
Mayan
Incan
Toltec
What was the capital of the Aztec Empire?
Texcoco
Culhuacan
Teotihuacan
Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
The ruler of the Incan Empire did all the following EXCEPT
rule despotically.
control all produce.
use hieroglyphic writing.
regulate marriage.
use hieroglyphic writing.
Because of isolation, peoples of the Western Hemisphere lacked all of the following EXCEPT
animals used for plowing.
complex agriculture.
the use of the wheel.
immunity from European diseases.
complex agriculture.
In the Mayan society, the dominant class was the
merchant.
peasant.
Sapa Inca.
priestly caste.
priestly caste
What type of sacrifices were used to celebrate the dedication of the great pyramids in the Aztec Empire?
bloodletting
human sacrifice
body piercing
virgins thrown into wells
human sacrifice
How did the Incas prepare their dead for eternal life?
buried them
burned them
threw them into rivers
mummified them
mummified them
During what period did the Mongols of central Asia impact the other global civilizations of the Eastern Hemisphere in the post-Classical era?
1300 to 1500
1100 to 1300
900 to 1100
1250 to 1400
1250 to 1400
. Which of the following statements concerning the nomadic society of the Mongols prior to the establishment of the empire is NOT accurate?
The Mongols were primarily herders of cattle.
The Mongols were organized into family clans.
T
The Mongols were primarily herders of cattle.




became universal ruler of the Mongol tribes
What military tactic was frequently employed by Mongol troops?
mass artillery barrage followed by infantry attacks on the flanks
trench warfare
frontal assault by mass cavalry
ambushes and the cutting off of supply lines
ambushes and the cutting off of supply lines





France.




the spread of the Bubonic plague
In the early fifteenth century, China undertook a series of trading expeditions under the leadership of Admiral
Ming.
Kubilai Khan.
Marco Polo.
Chang Ho.





8 . The Chinese sea voyages reache
Chang Ho.


India and East Africa.
Which European group in the late thirteenth century was already attempting to find a westward route to Asia?
Italians
Muslims
Mongols
Russians





10 . The 1405 fleet led by Admiral Ho was mad
Italians


62 ships and 28,000 men
All of the following help explain why the Renaissance began in Italy EXCEPT
Italians city-states had extensive trading contacts with other parts of the world.
Italy remained tied to medieval cultural traditions.
Italian artists began
Italy remained tied to medieval cultural traditions.



Erasmus.


Spain
By the end of the 1500s, the Reformation resulted in which of the following?
a host of new scientific discoveries
the elimination of the landed aristocracy
the emergence of democratic political systems
a series of brutal wars
a series of brutal wars between Catholic and Protestants



a decrease in military conflict.



England.
Which of the following intellectuals popularized the notion that basic political power lay with people?
Adam Smith
Machiavelli
Isaac Newton
John Locke





8 . The most significant political de
John Locke



growth in state power and governmental functions.





a reluctance to adopt scientific principles to discussions of human affairs and human nature.




the decrease in traditional methods of agriculture among most people
European colonial trade and expansion after 1450 depended all of the following EXCEPT
high-quality gunnery.
increasing skill in shipbuilding and navigation.
a long tradition of cross-cultural exchange.
national monarchies comp
a long tradition of cross-cultural exchange





Spain and Portugal





Holland and England




Middle East



the ability to penetrate the interior of foreign lands.
Which of the following does NOT actually describe the Atlantic slave trade?
European slave traders roamed the African interior in search of slaves
Between 1500 and the end of the slave trade in the nineteenth century, as many as 12 million
6. European slave traders roamed the African interior in search of slaves




7Africa




8a substantial dependence on Western Europe for markets and finished products.





9Spain phased out colonial controls voluntarily for Latin America, whereas the North American colonies had to fight for independence.
Which of the following does NOT represent a similarity between the Ottoman and the Mughal empires in the early modern period?
both created an integrated culture and generated lasting economic strength
both had Turkish origins
both in
1
both created an integrated culture and generated lasting economic strength





2 Only the Mughal Empire included a large Hindu population.




3 Persia






4Janissaries.




5Provincial governors became increasingly corrupt, placing heavy burdens on the masses to acquire vast personal fortunes and increasing popular discontent.


6 Only the Mughals created an effective system of taxation based on landed property.



7Babur.




8Prostitution was eliminated in his realm.





9 Shah Jehan departed from the Mughal tradition of religious toleration.






10intensified attacks on the Hindu majority
Why did the Ming abandon the great trading expeditions through the Indian Ocean that they launched in the fourteenth century?
The trade with foreign regions produced a negative balance of trade that drained bullion from the Chinese coffers.
1 There was little of value for the Chinese to import, and the voyages were expensive to carry out




2China became a dominant world trading power




3 Representatives were sent out to guard against corruption by local officials



4 Ming, Qing




5 Europeans were successful in openly extensive trading contacts with China.



6 Trade and manufacturing declined, leading to an increase in the import of European goods.




7 The economy progressed, with improved irrigation and farming.

daimyo used extensive diplomacy to keep warfare to a minimum.

8 a Tokugawa general




9 Large amounts of Western firearms were imported to strengthen the Tokugawa military.




10 Traditional warrior values based on Shintoism continued to play an important role in administrative practices.

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