Glossary of AP Psychology Vocab Chapter 10

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The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to it provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category.
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier but also more error prone use or heuristics.
A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
Confirmation Bias
A tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
Mental Set
A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem.
Representativeness Heuristic
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
Functional Fixedness
The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
Availability Heuristic
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common.
The tendency to be more confident than correct. To overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements.
The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements.
Belief Bias
The tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid.
Belief Perseverance
Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
Computer neural networks
Computer circuits that mimic the brain's interconnected neural cells, performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells.
Artificial Intelligence
The science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes such as intuitive reasoning, learning, and understanding language.
Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
In a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning, may be a word or a part of a word.
A system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also the study of meaning.
The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
Babbling Stage
Beginning at 3-4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
One-Word Stage
The stage in speech development from about 1-2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
Two Word Stage
Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in 2-word statements.
Telegraphic Speech
Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram. "Go car"- using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words.
Linguistic Determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.

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