Glossary of AP Psychology Vocab Chapter 10
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- The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
- A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
- A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to it provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category.
- A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier but also more error prone use or heuristics.
- A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
- A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
- Confirmation Bias
- A tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
- The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
- Mental Set
- A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem.
- Representativeness Heuristic
- Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
- Functional Fixedness
- The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
- Availability Heuristic
- Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common.
- The tendency to be more confident than correct. To overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements.
- The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements.
- Belief Bias
- The tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid.
- Belief Perseverance
- Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
- Computer neural networks
- Computer circuits that mimic the brain's interconnected neural cells, performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells.
- Artificial Intelligence
- The science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes such as intuitive reasoning, learning, and understanding language.
- Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
- In a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
- In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning, may be a word or a part of a word.
- A system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
- The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also the study of meaning.
- The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
- Babbling Stage
- Beginning at 3-4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
- One-Word Stage
- The stage in speech development from about 1-2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
- Two Word Stage
- Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in 2-word statements.
- Telegraphic Speech
- Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram. "Go car"- using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words.
- Linguistic Determinism
- Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
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