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Glossary of AP Psychology Chapter One

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Hindsight bias
The tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
Critical Thinking
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Theory
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
Hypothesis
Testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
Operational Definition
A statement of the procedures used to define research variables.
Replication
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
Case study
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Survey
A technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
False Consensus Effect
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
Population
All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
Random Sample
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Correlation Coefficient
A statistical measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
Scatter plot
A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the value of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between 2 variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between 2 variables.
Illusory Correlation
The perception of a relationship where none exists.
Experiment
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental processes.
Double blind procedure
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.
Placebo Effect
Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition which is assumed to be an active agent.
Experimental Condition
The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independant variable.
Control condition
The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluation the effect of the treatment.
Random assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
Independent variable
The experiment factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
Dependent variable
The experimental factor that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Standard Deviation
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
Statistical Significance
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
Culture
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

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