Glossary of AP Psychology Chapter One
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- Hindsight bias
- The tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
- Critical Thinking
- Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
- An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
- Testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
- Operational Definition
- A statement of the procedures used to define research variables.
- Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
- Case study
- An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
- A technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
- False Consensus Effect
- The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
- Naturalistic Observation
- Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
- All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
- Random Sample
- A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
- Correlation Coefficient
- A statistical measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
- Scatter plot
- A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the value of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between 2 variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between 2 variables.
- Illusory Correlation
- The perception of a relationship where none exists.
- A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental processes.
- Double blind procedure
- An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.
- Placebo Effect
- Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition which is assumed to be an active agent.
- Experimental Condition
- The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independant variable.
- Control condition
- The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluation the effect of the treatment.
- Random assignment
- Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
- Independent variable
- The experiment factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
- Dependent variable
- The experimental factor that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
- Standard Deviation
- A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
- Statistical Significance
- A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
- The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
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