Glossary of AP Psychology Ch.8

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A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
Associative Learning
Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant learning).
Classical Conditioning
A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
In classical conditioning, the unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) such as salvation when food is in the mouth.
Unconditioned Stimulus
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally--naturally and automatically--triggers a response.
Conditioned Response
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.
The initial stage in classical conditioning: The phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus, so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
Spontaneous Recovery
The reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response.
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
Operant Conditionning
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Respondent Behavior
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning.
Operant Behavior
Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.
Law of Effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
Operant Chamber
A chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain food or water reinforcer with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal.
In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.

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