Glossary of AP Euro Midterm Review Part 3

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James I of England
Son of Mary, Queen of Scots; not very well liked; suspected of Catholic sympathies (married his son to the Spanish infanta)
Duke of Buckingham
Exercised influence over James; sold titles of nobility (angered the old rich)
Millenary Petition
Puritans demanded religios reforms from James I (who was born a Presbyterian)
Petition of Right
Parliament's response to Charles I's new taxes &c.; Charles I dissolved Parliament
Thomas Wentworth/Earl of Strafford
Chief minister of Charles I who introduced strict administrative centralization to reduce dependency on Parliament
William Laud
Archbishop of Canterbury; tried to impose the Book of Common Prayer on Scotland (led to war and more dependency on Parliament for money)
Religious division in Parliament
Conservatives: traditional Episcopal system
Presbyterians (moderate Puritans): Calvinist structure
Independents (extreme Puritans): complete separatism
Short Parliament
Refused to give Charles I funding for the war with Scotland; Charles dissolved Parliament
Long Parliament
Impeached the Earl of Strafford; abolished the Court of Star Chamber and High Commission; outlawed ship money and new taxes without Parliament's consent; required Parliament to meet every three years; demanded that Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent
Grand Remonstrance
Long Parliament's list of 200 grievances to the crown
English Civil War
Charles I invaded Parliament; war opened between the royalist Cavaliers and the rebel roundheads over
1. Monarchy vs. absolutism
2. Anglicanism or Presbyterianism?
Pride's Purge
Colonel Thomas Pride banned Puritans from taking their seats; created the Rump Parliament, which executed Charles I and abolished the House of Lords, the monarchy, and the Anglican church
Oliver Cromwell
Lord protector of the English Puritan Republic
Charles II
Next Stuart monarch; had Catholic sympathies, and so was tolerant
Clarendon Code
Excluded any non-Anglican from political office and reinstated the Book of Common Prayer
Treaty of Dover
Charles II agreed secretly with France to become Catholic in return for funding
Declaration of Indulgence
Charles II suspended all laws against Catholics; Parliament refused to give him money, so he took it back
Test Act
Aimed at Charles's brother, James (Catholic); required everyone to swear against transubstantiation
James II
Last Catholic king of England; alienated everyone by trying to repeal the Test Act, dissolving Parliament, replacing Anglican officers with Catholics, and reissuing the Declaration of Indulgence
Glorious Revolution
William and Mary (Netherlands) invaded England and sent James into exile
William and Mary
Took the throne of England; guaranteed civil rights, limited the power of the monarchy; demanded that Parliament meet every three years
Act of Settlement
No more Catholic monarchs in England EVER AGAIN

George I of the German house of Hanover became the next king of England
Duke of Sully
Henry IV's finance minister
Marie de Medici
Louis XIII's regent (sought security in the Treaty of Fontainebleau)
Cardinal Richelieu
Louis XIII's chief advisor; believed in large state interests over the preferences of the nobility
Cardinal Mazarin
Regent for Louis XIV; ruled similarly to Richelieu
Rebellion from Parlement, the nobikity, and the wives of princes
Louis XUV
Absolutist king; created an elaborate court life for the nobility at Versailles
Augustinian opposition to Jesuit theology
Marquis of Louvois
Military tactician who reinvented the military (wages, promotion based on merit, increased dedication)
Sebastien Vaubaun
Military engineer who developed trench warfare andtown fortification
War of Devolution
Louis XIV fought against the Triple Alliance (England, Sweden, and Holland) over Flanders and Franche-Comte
Invasion of the Netherlands
England attacked the Netherlands (William III of Orange); the Peace of Nijmwegen gave everything back to the Dutch
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV took away Protestant privileges - Protestants became galley slaves, children were rebaptized, schools and churches were closed, ministers exiled
Nine Years' War
Louis XIV invaded the Palatinate, countered by the League of Augsburg; Peace of Ryswick secured Holland's borders
War of the Spanish Succession
Louis XIV's grandson becomes Philip V of Spain; Louis XIV sends troops to claim Spanish territory and fought the Grand Alliance (England, Holland, Spain, HRE); Treaty of Rastatt confirmed the rule of Philip V but ignored Louis XIV
Maria Winklemann
Female astronomer; received little recognition; rejected from the Berlin Academy of Sciences after her husnad died
Galileo Galilei
Astronomer and mathematician who preached Copernicanism and a mathematically ordered universe; clashed with the Catholic Church and was put under house arrest until his death
Johannes Kepler
Assistant to Tycho Brahe; used Brahe's data to support his Copernican beliefs and the heliocentric model of the universe; discovered the elliptical paths of the planets
Margaret Cavendish
Well-read noblewoman who married into a circle of philosophers; became a critic of the Royal Society and of scientific instruments
Second century philosopher who proposed geocentrism - the earth in the center, surrounded by concentric spheres in which the moon and stars existed
Astronomer who challened the Ptolemaic system; agreed with many of its elements, but proposed heliocentrism - more thorough model (filled the gaps of Ptolemy)
Tycho Brahe
Astronomer and mathematician who accepted geocentrism but produced mathematical calculations about the placement of planets in orbit; Kepler later used this data to support heliocentrism
Isaac Newton
Mathematician who developed the theory of gravity in Principia Mathematica; planets and all other objects move through mutual attraction
Thomas Hobbes
Advocate of absolutism; believed that humans are selfish and competitive and proposed absolute leadership to subdue mankind
Francis Bacon
Founder of the empirical method and induction; linked science with progress; encouraged scientists to use their senses
Rene Descartes
Founder of analytic geometry and deduction; divided the world into mind and body; science applied only to the physical
John Locke
Political thinker; critic of absolutism; government responsible for and responsive to the governed; human's natural state is freedom; advocated religious toleration; conceived tabula rasa
Blaise Pascal
Jansenist who condemned Jesuits, deists, and atheists; belief in God brings moral discipline
My head feels like it's going to explode...
Only two more chapters to go...

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