Glossary of AP - Integumentary
Created by amandakflint
- What is the deepest layer of epidermal layers?
- Stratum germinativum
- What is the dandruff layer of the epidermal layers?
- Stratum corneum
- What epidermal layer has Langerhans cells?
- Stratum spinosum
- What two epidermal layers are missing in thin skin?
- stratum granulosum and stratum lucidum
- What epidermal layer plays a role in waterproofing?
- Stratum granulosum
- What is the epidermal layers beginning at the surface of the skin?
- Stratum corneum
- What are the epidermal layers beginning from the surface of the skin?
- Stratum corneum
- What are the glands of the skin?
- Sebaceous glands
- Describe sebaceous glands
- located in dermis
most have a single duct that empties into the hair follicle but some empty directly onto the surface of the skin
- Describe sweat glands
- Two types: Eccrine and Apocrine
Eccrine empty onto surface of skin whereas apocrine empty into hair follicles
Eccrine found in deep layer of fat and connective tissue and apocrine found in external ear canal
- Describe tail glands
- apocrine and sebaceous glands in this area are very large
-aids in identification of different animals
- Describe anal sacs
purpose: elimination, marking territory, attracting a mate
- What is the function of the arrector pili muscle?
- -attached to each hair follicle and is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system
-when muscle contracts, hair is pulled to an erect position
-is a small, smooth muscle
- What are the functions of the integumentary system?
- -prevents desiccation
-reduces threat of injury
-assists in maintaining normal body temperature
-excretes water, salt, and organic wastes
-receives and conveys sensory information
-synthesizes vitamin D
- What is keratinization?
- the process in which the cells give up vital organelles and nuclei to make room for keratin, in this process the cell expires
- What is one of the largest and most extensive organ systems in the body?
- The epidermis is composed of:
- keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
- Types of cells of the epidermis:
- What are the two layers of the dermis?
- papillary layer and reticular layer
- What are Merkel cells?
- associated with sensory endings and thought to aid in the sensation of touch
- What are keratinocytes?
- produce keratin, makes up the majority of the cells found in the epidermis, these are the cells that undergo keratinization
- What is keratin?
- the tough, fibrous, waterproof protein that gives skin its resiliency and strength
- How often do humans form an entirely new epidermis?
- every 7-8 weeks
- What are melanocytes?
- produce melanin pigment, have long projections that extend out to the keratinocytes in the basal layer, the melanin released by the melaninocytes is absorbed by keratinocytes to protect them from UV rays
- What are Langerhans cells?
- macrophages specific to epidermis, phagocytize microinvaders, found in stratum spinosum, originates in bone marrow, plays an important role in helping stimulate other aspects of the immune system
- What separates the epidermis and dermis?
- epithelial basement membrane
- Define epidermis:
- does not contain blood vessels but is provided nutrients via interstitial fluid that diffuses up from the dermis
- Define dermis:
- contains blood vessels, greatest amount of the integment, responsible for structural strength of the skin, highly fibrous, contains fibroblasts, adipoctyes, macrophages, has two layers - papillary and reticular
- Define hypodermis:
- composed mostly of adipose tissue, contains pacinian corpuscle, fibers of this are continuous with those of dermis, permits the skin to move freely over underlying bone and muscle
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