Glossary of AP - Integumentary

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What is the deepest layer of epidermal layers?
Stratum germinativum
What is the dandruff layer of the epidermal layers?
Stratum corneum
What epidermal layer has Langerhans cells?
Stratum spinosum
What two epidermal layers are missing in thin skin?
stratum granulosum and stratum lucidum
What epidermal layer plays a role in waterproofing?
Stratum granulosum
What is the epidermal layers beginning at the surface of the skin?
Stratum corneum
What are the epidermal layers beginning from the surface of the skin?
Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum germinativum

What are the glands of the skin?
Sebaceous glands
Sweat glands
Anal sacs
Tail glands

Describe sebaceous glands
located in dermis
holocrine structure
most have a single duct that empties into the hair follicle but some empty directly onto the surface of the skin

Describe sweat glands
Two types: Eccrine and Apocrine
Eccrine empty onto surface of skin whereas apocrine empty into hair follicles
Eccrine found in deep layer of fat and connective tissue and apocrine found in external ear canal

Describe tail glands
apocrine and sebaceous glands in this area are very large
-aids in identification of different animals
Describe anal sacs
purpose: elimination, marking territory, attracting a mate
What is the function of the arrector pili muscle?
-attached to each hair follicle and is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system
-when muscle contracts, hair is pulled to an erect position
-is a small, smooth muscle

What are the functions of the integumentary system?
-prevents desiccation
-reduces threat of injury
-assists in maintaining normal body temperature
-excretes water, salt, and organic wastes
-receives and conveys sensory information
-synthesizes vitamin D
-stores nutrients

What is keratinization?
the process in which the cells give up vital organelles and nuclei to make room for keratin, in this process the cell expires
What is one of the largest and most extensive organ systems in the body?
The epidermis is composed of:
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Types of cells of the epidermis:
langerhans cells
merkel cells

What are the two layers of the dermis?
papillary layer and reticular layer
What are Merkel cells?
associated with sensory endings and thought to aid in the sensation of touch
What are keratinocytes?
produce keratin, makes up the majority of the cells found in the epidermis, these are the cells that undergo keratinization
What is keratin?
the tough, fibrous, waterproof protein that gives skin its resiliency and strength
How often do humans form an entirely new epidermis?
every 7-8 weeks
What are melanocytes?
produce melanin pigment, have long projections that extend out to the keratinocytes in the basal layer, the melanin released by the melaninocytes is absorbed by keratinocytes to protect them from UV rays
What are Langerhans cells?
macrophages specific to epidermis, phagocytize microinvaders, found in stratum spinosum, originates in bone marrow, plays an important role in helping stimulate other aspects of the immune system
What separates the epidermis and dermis?
epithelial basement membrane
Define epidermis:
does not contain blood vessels but is provided nutrients via interstitial fluid that diffuses up from the dermis
Define dermis:
contains blood vessels, greatest amount of the integment, responsible for structural strength of the skin, highly fibrous, contains fibroblasts, adipoctyes, macrophages, has two layers - papillary and reticular
Define hypodermis:
composed mostly of adipose tissue, contains pacinian corpuscle, fibers of this are continuous with those of dermis, permits the skin to move freely over underlying bone and muscle

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