Glossary of APES 2nd Semester test 2

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the pH scale goes from - to --, and is based on this mathematical function
0, 14, logarithm
foods are basic or acidic?
cleaners are basic or acidic?
water droplets react with sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide (from---) too form this....
cars, acid rain
soils containing these ions can buffer the effects of acid rain
calcium and magnesium
metals locked onto clay particles can be detached and washed into water supplies through this process
cation exchange
the mountains have very thin, acidic soil which makes them feel the effects of acid rain more. this is because...
evergreen needles make soils acidic
when pH goes below -- for earth and -- for water, the environment is being harmed. Normal rain has a pH value of --
5.1, 5.5, 5.5
duration is important to determine the amount of damage done by acid rain. the three levels are
chronic, subchronic, acute
in the rainshadow effect, the ---- side of the mountain gets more acid rain
rain shadow effect
mtn tops also see a greater effect
this explains the time delay in acid rain. trees can be exposed for a chronic period and then all suddenly die.
waldsterben effect
w/o trees, we have more erosion. this is an example of...
the butterfly, or synergistic, effect
the most serious effects of acid rain are found in the
appalachian mtns
in this, the pH suddenly drops in water and fish die. aluminum is especially bad, irritating gills, suffocating fish, and inhibiting reproduction
acid shock
prevention approaches to acid rain include:
reducing energy use and increasing efficiency
switching to natural gas
removing sulfur from coal
burning more low sulfur coal
removing sulfur particulates and nitrogen oxides in smokestacks (not actually prevention)
removing nitrogen oxides from vehicle exhaust (not prevention, either)
this coal makes low heat, has less sulfur
this coal has a lot of heat and a lot of sulfur. it is common
this coal makes a lot of heat, has little sulfur, and is rare and expensive
this is a platinum plate which breaks down nitrous oxides and is effectivve at an idle or constant velocity
catalytic converter
in this, air is forced through cloth filers. it still lets mercury and lead though (small particles)
it is the most expensive air scrubber
baghouse filters
this forces air through water mist and collects particulates
doesn't catch gaseous substances and is not as effective as the bag house filter, but is cheaper
wet scrubber
this has charged plates to which charged particles in the air are drawn. constant energy source needed. plates must be cleaned and replaced.
electrostatic precipitator
a vortex of air throws heavy particles to walls and collects them as clean air funnels to the top. this is not effective on small particles. it is cheap because it requires no replacement parts or electricity.
cyclone seperator
air scrubbers are often used in tandem. which two are used together most commonly?
baghouse and cyclone
for aquatic systems, one way to counter the effects of acid rain is to add
another way to counter acid rain is to introduce this, but if used to excess, can cause algae blooms!
phosphate ions in fertilizer
this is what initially enters a waste water treatment facility. it is entirly liquid
raw effluent
the first part of primary treatment is a ---- step where a --- screen iis used
physical, bar
the second primary treatment is the ----. this room is wider and slower, solids sink to the bottom, while grease is skimmed off the top. air is bubbled through so that ----- stays afloat.
grit and grease chamber, organic matter
secondary treatment is a ---- treatment.
in secondary treatment, effluent is switched between aerated ---- tanks and --- tanks.
aerobic, anoxic
in aerobic tanks, ---- is digested
in anoxic tanks, ------ is digested
the third stage is a ---- tank called a -----. this is a physical process.
settling, clarifier
bod stands for...
biological oxygen demand
---- from the bottom of the ---- is thickened, baked, and used as fertilizer
sludge, clarifier
grade b fertilizer is for ---- consumption. it can be used only on grain fields for ----
class c fertilizer is not ---. it should only be used on ----.
thickened or baked, woodlots (areas not for human consumption)
class A fertilizer is ----. do you need a permit to use it?
dry pellets, no
this is an advanced treatment. in it water is forced through fine sand to eliminate extra organic materials
sand filter
this is the last required step, in which water is -----. it is bombarded with ------. which kills ----- organisms
disinfected, uv rays, single celled
water leaving the plant may still contain --- % original BODs and suspended material, -- % nitrogen, -- % toxic metals.
3-5, 50, 30
this can remove organics, do desalination. removes sediments and phosphates
activated carbon
this is when electrically charged plates attract salt for desalination
in this act, states were directed to develop water quality standards establishing water quality goals for interstate water
water quality act of 1965
this act provides for a plan to formulate and evaluate water and related land resources projects
water resources planning act of 1965
this set standards for pollution levels or limiting emissions or effluents for various classes of pollutants
federal water pollution control act of 1965
this regulates the intnetional ocean disposal of materials and authorizes related research
ocean dumping act of 1972
this requires the epa to establish national drinking water standards, called maximum contaminant levels, for any pollutants that may have adverse effects on human health
safe drinking water act of 1974
this authorizes and modifies projects for navigation, flood control, environmental resotration, rec, hurricane and storm damage recution, ecosystem restoration, shore protection, aquifer storage and recovery, and navigation mitigation
water resources development act of 1986
the goals included making all US surgace waters safe for fishing and swimming by 1983 and to restore and maintain the chm, phys, and bio integrity of the nation's waters. the revision requires states to develop and execute plans to control non point poll
clean water act of 1977
provides a partial ban on ocean dumping and prohibits the dumping of sewage sludge and industrial waste
ocean dumping ban act of 1988
set standards for polllution levels or limiting emissions of effluents for various classes of pollutants based on current tech
clean air act of 1963
congress declares that pollution should be prevented, products recycled, and if neither is feasible, it should be taken care of in an environmentally safe manner
pollution prevention act of 1990
promotes an environment for all americans free from noise that jeopardizes their health or welfare. to that end, it is the prurpose of this act to establish a means for effective coordination of federal research and activities in noise control, to author
noise control act of 1965
this gives the epa input to the federal aviation administration regarding noise and how it affects health. it also calls for a study on how aircraft noise affects health
quiet communities act of 1978
the ----- extends 17 km above sea level at the equator and 8 km above sea level at the poles.
the atmosphere is 78% -- and 21% --
nitrogen, oxygen
the ------- extends 17-48 km above earth. it has less ----, but more ----
stratosphere, water, ozone
this forms in the troposphere and is very harmful. in the stratosphere, it is helpful.
photochemical ozone
VOCs are ----. they include CH4, C2H2, and chloroflourocarbons
Volatile Organic Compounds
SPMs are
Solid Particluate Matter
these include ozone, aldehydes, peroxyacylnitrates, hydrogen peroxide
photochemical oxidants
HAPs are ---- and include CCl4, CH3Cl, ClCl3, C4H6, C2H2, Br2, CH2O2
Hazardous Air Pollutants
Brown Air Smog is another term for this, which reaches pick levels around ---
Photochemical smog, early afternoon
this is an odorless, colorless gas
carbon monoxide
this comes from cigarette smoking and incomplete burning of fossil fuels. 77% of it comes from cars
carbon monoxide
this reacts with hemoglobin is red bloood cells to impair perception, slow reflexes, cause headaches, drowsiness, dizziness, nausea. it can trigger heart attacks, angina, damage fetus, aggravate chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and anemia
carbon monoxide
this is a reddish brown, irritating gas in photochemical smog. it is part of acid rain
nitrogen dioxide
this comes from cars and power plants
nitrogen dioxide
this causes lung irritation, aggrvates asthma, bronchitis, and increases susceptibility to flu and colds
nitrogen dioxide
This decreases visibility and is in acid deposition. it corrodes metals, stone, and fabrics
nitrogen dioxide
this is a colourless, irritating gas from coal and oil. it's also in acid deposition
sulfur dioxide
this can cause breathing problems and asthma, as well as decreasing visibility, corroding metals, stone, paint, paper, and leather
sulfur dioxide
this is a highly reactive, irritating gas with odor. it is also called photochemical ----
ozone, smog
this comes from cars and industries, can cause breathing problems, astham, broncitis, emphysema, colds, pneumonia, and increased lung aging. it decreased visibility and kills plants and trees. it also destroys rubber, fabric, and paints
this is a solid toxic metal and its comonoent parts originating in paint, smelters, stoage batteries, and some gas
this accumulates in the body, brian, and nervous system, causing mental retardation, digestive problems, and cancer.
sulfur diozide, sulfuric acid droplets, and susptended aerosols all combine to form
industrial smog
industrial smog is also known as ----
gray air smog
the frequency and severity of smog depend on --
local climate and topography, population density, amount of industry, fuels used in industry, heating, and transport
this can be reduced by rain and snow, winds, and increased by urban buildings, hills and mtns, high temps
industrial smog
this is one trillionth of a curie, the amnt of radiation emitted by 1g of radium
this is when large warm air masses move in at high altitude, float over cold hair near ground, and doesn't last long
subsidence temp inversion
this happens at night, air near ground cools first, this dissapears by noon
radiation temp inversion
temperature inversions typically occur in places with....
a valley surrounded by mtns, cold cloudy weather for part of the year
the three most dangerous indoor pollutants are...
cigarette smoke, formaldehyde, and radioactive radon 222 gas
this comes from furniture, drapes, upholstery, adhesives, insulation, nail hardener and wrinkle free coating on clothes
this comes into houses from natural sources in the earth through cracks in the foundation, walls, and openings in sump pumps, drains, and hollow concrete blocks
this is a fibrous form of silicate minderals
this is a chronic illness which makes breathing difficult
air pollution erodes, discolors,and soils this
stone and concrete
air pollution corrodes, tarnishes, and decreases the strength of this
air pollution causes surgace erosion in this
ceramics/ glass
air pollution causes doscolaration, soiling, and serface erosion of this
air pollution embrittles and discolors this
air pollution cracks and lessens the strength of this
air pollution causes surface deterioration and less strength in this
air pollition causes surfacing deterioration, fading, and soiling in this
this has a command and control approach. the EPA sets regs, enforced by the city and state
clean air acts
these are criteria for primary standards (relating to---), secondary standards (relating to---), attainment areas and non attainment areas
national ambient air quality stndards, people, envionment and property
There is no ocean dumping ban for this
dredge spoils
The --- zone includes fungus, sludge worms, and anaerobic bacteria
septic zone
Most oil pollution in the ocean is caused by this
runoff from land
These cause a high BOD
organic wastes
This is not a greenhouse gas, but it is in acid rain.
sulfur dioxide
Since 1860, mean global temperature has risen --- to --- degrees celcius
.3, .6
Melting polar ice would lessen the ---, releasing ---- gas from polar ice melt and balancing ----
albedo, methane, global warming
These make the US about n1 degree celsius cooler than it would otherwise be
hydrocarbon emission
This is not! a technofix
This is the most effective band at blocking UV rays
these are not used in fire extinguishers
these don't eat ozone
this does not come from ozone
heart disease
global temperature change occurs in -- scales. the first being every 900,000 years, followed by every 22,000 years, followed by
4, 1000, 130
ice ages last this many years
interglacial periods last how long
10,000-12,500 years
past temp changes can be estimated using these 7 things
plankton, isotopes in deep ocean sediments
ice cores
temperature at different depths in earth's core
pollen in lake bottoms and bogs
tree rings
historical records
temperature measurements (since 1860)
the greenhouse effect warms what?
the lower troposphere and earth
the greenhouse effect is also known as the...
tropospheric heating effect
natural cooling processes include
water, clouds, heat released higher in atmosphere
without the greenhouse effect, earth's temp would be ---. as it is, its ---
0 fahrenheit, 59 fahrenheit
greenhouse gases include water vapor and carbon dioxide, along with
methane, N2O, CFCs, SF6, SF5CF3
this gas comes from burning fossil fuels, especially coal, along with deforestation and plant burning
carbon dioxide
this fas spends about 50 to 500 years in the troposphere
carbon dioxide
this gas's relative warming potential is 1
carbon dioxide
this gas comes from rice paddies, guts of cattle and termites, landfills, coal production, coal seams, and natural gas leaks
this gas lasts 9-15 years in the troposphere
this gas's relative warming potential is 24
this gas comes from fossil fuels, fertilizer, livestock waste, and nylon productions
nitrous oxide
this gas stays in the troposphere 120 years
nitrous oxide
this gas has a relative warming potential of 360
nitrous oxide
these come from air conidtioning, fridges, and plastic foams
these last 11-20 years in the troposphere
these last 65-110 years in the stratosphere
these have a relative warming potential of 1500-7000
thes are being phased out, but it will take about 50-100 years for the ozone to recover from their use
this gaslasts about 1000 years in the troposphere
this gas has a relative warming potential of 18000
these human activities increase ozone depletion
increasing use of fossil fuels, deforestation, cultivation of rice paddies, and use of inorganic fertilizer
this is an enhanced greenhouse effect
global warming
the 20th century is the hottest in the past ----years
rapid climate change effects these things...
availability of water, where crops can be grown, average sea levels, structure and locale of biomes
mathematical models on supercomputers are used to forecast these are also called--- models
general circulation
these models are more complete and include interactions between atmosphere and ocean, change in solar input, aerosol input, cloudiness
ocean circulation models
ozone depletion takes place here
the major substances involved in global warming are
carbon diozide, methane, nitrous oxide
the major substance involved in ozone depletion are
ozone, O2, and CFCs
global warming's interation with radiation is
it absorbes infrared radiation and release energy into lower troposphere
ozone depletion's interaction with radiation is that
95% of uv rays are absorbed by the ozone
the major problem with ozone depletion is that
uv rays hit the stratosphere, ozone is pleted, and more uv radiation reaches earth
the consequences of global warming include
change in climate, agriculture, water, sea level
consequences of ozone depletion include
increases in cancer, cataracts, immune system suppression, crop and phytoplankton damage
GCMs do what...
divide the earth into 100 km wide by 3 km high boxes which began with initial conditions of temps, air pressure, wind speed, and water and carbon dioxide concentrations
sunspot cycles are how long? and how much does solar output vary?
18-22 year cycles, varies by .1%
this is the reflectivity of incoming solar energy. it varies differently in different parts of the earth. a higher number means more reflectivity
oceans remove 29% of excess ---
carbon dioxide
aerosols are more involved in what than what?
acid deposition than global warming
if ocean currents change, the biggest effects wiill be seen in...
northern europe and japan
these are prevention methods
cut fossil fuels, switching from coal to natural gas, giving energy efficiency and renewable tech to developing countries, increase energy efficiency, switching to renewable energy resources, decreasing deforestation, using sustainable agriculture, slowing population growth
these are cleanup methods
romving carbon dioxide from smokestack and vehicle emissions
stoer (sequester by planting trees or underground or in deep ocean)
this removes carbon diozide from the air and puts it in the soil
technofixes include
adding iron to the ocean to increase marine algaie, using foil sun mirrors in space, releasing reflective helium balloons into the atmosphere, fire s2o molecules into the stratosphere which would turn the sky white and increase ozone depletion
these were invented in 1930 along with freons
these were coolants, aerosols, cleaners, sterilants, fumigants, bubles in plastic foam
this is a catalyst in breaking ozone into seperate oxygen molecules
ODCs are--- and include----
ozone depleting compounds
jalons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, hydrogen chloride
these come in fire extinguishers
this is in fumigants
methyl bromide
this is a solvent
carbon tetrachloride
this is a cleaning solvent and propellant in aerosols
methyl chloroform
these take 11-20 years to hit the stratosphere
there is no ozone hole, instead
ozone thinning
ozone depletion varies with
altitude and location
polar vortexs occur in
this causes immunte system suppression, acid rain, eye burning photochemical smog, and fewer crops
uv exposure
this is the longest wavelength uv ray, has low energy it causes...
UVA, sking aging, tanning, sunbrun, cancer
this is the short wavelength, high energy uv ray, it causes....
UVB, sunburn, aging, wrinkling, basal and squamous cell carcinomas and plays a role in malignant melanoma
this is from cells in the upper layer of the epidermis. it's caused by sun or tanning. it's treatable early and grows faster than basal cell and can metastasize
squamous cell carcinoma
this is the most common skin cancer. comes from sun or tanning. it is slow growing, rarely metastasizes, and is almost 100% curable
basal cell carcinoma
this is the deadliest skin cancer. originates in these cells, which make pigment. it grows fast and metastasizes
melanoma, melanocytes
alternatives to methyl bromide for use in fumigants include
benzaldehyde (from fruit), and diatomaceous earth (insects)
these break down faster than CFCs, less danger to the ozone. can be used in aerosols, fridges, AC, foam, and cleaners.
these are a greenhouse gas, have unknown health effects, are expensive, are less energy efficient than CFCs, and degrade to TFA
these break down fast, don't contain chlorine, can be used in aerosols, AC, fridges, and foam
these are a greenhouse gas, expensive, may be toxic or flammable, TFA, less energy efficiency, and deplete the ozone
these include propane and butane
these are cheap, readily available, and can be used in fridges, aerosol, foam, cleaners, not patentable, can be made locally
these are flammable, poisonous, and increase ground level air pollution
this is an alternative for fridges and was used before CFCs
this is toxic and must be handled very carefully
these can be used in cleaning sterilizing
water and steam
these come from lemon and other citrus rinds
these clean electronic parts and have no cons
this is a coolant for fridges, freezers, and AC, the only probs are that it's a rare gas and may become scarce
water covers--- of the earth's surface
water's unique properties come mainly from its
strong attractive forces (H bonds)
water filters out
uv radiation
water's high surface tension means that
insects can walk on it and it allows the capillary action in plants
only this much freshwater is easily available
this is precip that doesn't evap and flows into streams, lakes, wetlands, reservoirs
surface runoff
this is water in voids (pores, fractures, crevices, etc.) in soil and rock
this is where grounwater has completely filled these voids above bedrock
zone of saturation
this is on top of the zone of saturation, it falls in dry weather and rises in wet
water table
this is an unsaturated zone lying above water table. the soil is moist
zone of aeration
these are porous, water saturated layers of sand, gravel, and bedrock through which groundwater flows
this is land through which water passes downward or laterally into an aquifer
natural recharge
these are like long, elongated, sponges
discharge areas
well, spring, lake, geyser, stream, ocean
withdrawals from aquifers are considered
water mining
these are aquifers with a water table
unconfined aquifer
these are bounded above and below by less permeable beds of rock. groundwater is combined under pressure
confined aquifer
in the eastern us, most water is used for
ENERGY production, cooling, manugacturing
in west us, most water is used for
water porblems in the east are
flooding, urban shortages, and pollution
in the west, water problems are
lack runoff caused by low precip, increased evap, recurring long droughts
the west undergoes ---- every 30 years
prolonged drought cycle
the four causes of water scarcity are
dry climate, drought, dessication, and water stress
a drought is
a period of 21 days or more when precip is 70% lower and evap is higher than normal
this is the drying of soil due to deforestation and overgrazing
this is when per capita availability of water decreases because there are more people and less runoffq
water stress
water is considered stress when
reliable runoff/ person drops to below 1700 cubic meters
5 ways to increase freshwater supplies
build dams and reservoirs to store runoff
bring in surface water from another area
withdraw groundwater
increase efficiency of water use
the aral sea is getting saltier! water diversion to irrigate all of russia leads to
higher infant mortality
repiratry illness
eye diseases
throat cancer
kidney and liver disease
arthritic diseases
this can cause/ intensify:
water table lowering
aquifer depletion
aquifer subsidence
intrusion of salt water into aquifers
drawing chemical contamination in groundwater toward wells
reduced stream flow
overuse of ground water
this is the sinking of land when groundwater is withdrawn
groundwater in the US is being withdrawn at ---x the replacement rate
ways to desalinate!
distillation, reverse osmosis
cloud seeding is done with
silver iodide
in this sort of irrigation system, water comes frmo aqueduct systems or nearby rivers and has 60-80% efficiency with surge aclves
gravity flow
this has 90-95% efficiency and uses above or below ground pipes to deliver water to individual plant roots
drip irrigation
these use less energy and less water
low energy precision application (LEPA) sprinklers
this system of water management is used mainly in the East
doctrine of riparian rights
this water management system is used primarily in the west
principal of prior appropriation
concerning water, common law states that
subsurface water belongs to whoever holds land above water. landowners can withdraw as much water as they like
these send water in pulses instead of strams
surge, time controlled valves
these water crops only when they need it and uses gypsum to tell
soil moisture detectors
ways to reduce water waste in irrigation include
lining the canals bringing water, leveling fields with lasers, irrigating at night, using soil and satellite systems, polyculture, organic farming, water efficient crops, irrigate with treated urban waste water, immport water heavy things from other places
these are lawn replacements using vegetation adapted to dry climates
which wastes more water, washing machines loading from the front or the top?
this us city uses more water per person than anywhere else in the world
las vegas
flood frequency curves tell--
not when, but how often a flood of a certain size occurs in a particular area
floodplain management utilizes
flood frequency curves
these include bacteria, viruses, protozoa, parasitic worms
infectious agents
infectious agents come from
human and animal waste
infectious agents cause...
these include organic waste
oxygen demanding wastes
these include animal maure and plant debris
organic waste
this comes from sewage, animal feedlots, paper mills, food processing facilities
oxygen demanding wastes
these casue large bacteria popltns which deplete dissolved ozygen in water and kiss fish
oxygen demanding wastes

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