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Glossary of ANATOMY

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ABDUCTION
moving away from the midline
ABSORBTION
taking in of nutrients from food into the blood stream
ADDUCTION
movement toward the midline
APPENDICULAR SKELETAL
extremeties of body
AXIAL SKELETAL
center of body
BALL & SOCKET JOINT
allows movement in many different directions
BASOPHILS
granular WBC, releases histamine and heparin
BICEPS BRACHII
lies along anterior humerus, make a muscle
BONES OF THE CRANIUM
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid
BUCCINATOR
trumpeters muscle, chewing muscle, inserts into the orbicularis oris and flattens the cheek when contracted.
BURSAE
sacs filled with synovial fluid between the joint and the tendons
CALCANEUS
heelbone, supports most of the body weight
CANCER OF THE LUNGS
tumor that grows and obstructs air passages causing them to collapse, and eventually become infected
CAPILLARIES
o2 transfer, connects arterioles to venules
CARDIAC MUSCLE
found only in the heart where it's function is to pump blood. classified as straited and involuntary.
CARPALS
eight bones of the wrist
CAUSES FOR KIDNEY/RENAL FAILURE
hypertension, kidney failure, uncontrolled diabetes
CAUSES FOR UREMIA
trama to kidney, infection
CERVICAL VERTEBRAE
c1-c7 located in the neck region
CHEMICAL BREAKDOWN
breakdown by enzymes, bile, saliva, hci
CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISORDER
various combination of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema, most serious complication is heart and respiratory failure ( fluid in the chest)
CHRYNE-STOKES RESPIRATIONS
irregular breathing pattern characterized by a series of shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and then decrease-followed by apnea of 10 - 60 seconds and then repeats
CIRCLE OF WILLIS
where the internal and vetebral arteries connect
CIRCUMDUCTION
turning in a circular motion
CLAVICAL
collarbone, attaches with the sternum and the scapula
COCCYX
make up of 4-5 small coccygeal vertebrae fused together( tail bone)
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT
provides information on amount of each elements of blood
COMPLETE PROTEINS
easily roken down
COMPOSITION OF BLOOD
made up of 55% plasma & 45% formed element(rbc,wbc,plt)
COMPOUND FRACTURE
break in bone with open skin
CONTRACTURE
abnormal formation of fibrous tissue within the muscle. freeze from prolonged period of immobilization.
CORONARY ARTERIES
brings oxygenated blood to the myocardium
COXAL BONE
hip bone, also called the oscoxae, contains ilium, ischium and pubis
CREATINE
accumulates in plasma
CYANOSIS
bluish color to the skin or mucous membrane due to a low concentration of oxygen in the blood
DELTOID
forms rounded portion of shoulder, under shoulder pad, extends from clavicle and scapula to humerus, abducts arms to horizontal position
DEOXYGENATED SIDE OF HEART
right
DESCENDING AORTA
carries oxygenated blood to the lower body
DETRUSOR MUSCLE
smooth muscle
DIAPHRAGM
dome shaped muscle seperates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity, cheif muscle in breathing,
DIASTOLE
relaxing
DIGESTION
breaking down of food
DIRECTIONS FOR DIALYSIS
3-4 hours/day, 3x weekly, for end stage renal failure, monitor vital every 1/2 hour
DISACCHRIDES
two sugars aid in amylase
DORSIFLEXION
bending the toe up toward the leg
DRUGS USED FOR LUNGS
bronchiodialater, albuteral, nebulizer, flo vent
DUODENUM
10 inchest long, major digestion area, first part of the small intestines
DYSPNEA
difficult or labored breathing
EMBOLUS
traveling clot in the blood
EMPHYSEMA
puffed up alveoli barrel chest
ENDOCARDIUM
inner most layer of the heart
EOSINOPHILS
granular leukocyte that stains red, inflammatory response, elevated in a person with allergies
EPICARDIUM
outermost layer of the heart
EPIGLOTTIS
flap that helps prevent foreign bodies from entering the lungs
EPIPHYSEAL DISC
growth plate
ERYTHROBLASTOSIS
action of moms rh- antibodies, to rid baby with rh+, prevented by administering rhogam during pregnancy and 72 hours after delivery
ERYTHROCYTES
primarily involved in transport of oxygen to all body tissues, flexible, if inflexible sickle cell deficiency leads to anemia
ERYTHROPOIETIN
secreted by kidneys to stimulate the bone marrow to release RBC when oxygen level is decreased
ESOPHAGUS
10 inches long contains spincter muscles that direct food donward
ETHMOID BONE
irregular shaped bone that forms the bony structure of the nasal cavity
ETHMOIDAL SINUS
located on the ethmoidal bone
EUPNEA
normal, quiet breathing
EUSTASIAN TUBES
tubes from the middle hear to the pharynx
EVERSION
turning the sole of the foot outward
EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME
volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled after normal exhalation
EXTENSION
straightening of a joint increasing the angle
EXTERNAL OBLIQUE
make up the lateral walls of the abdomen, runs obliquely.
EXTERNAL SPHINCTER
allows elimination
FACIAL BONES
mandible, maxilla, palatin, zygomatic
FALSE CORDS
doesn't produce sound, allows air and muscles for food
FALSE RIBS
middle 5 pairs pf ribs that attach indirectly to the sternum
FEMUR
thigh bone, longest and strongest bone in the body
FIBULA
thinner bone positioned alongside the tibis in the lower leg
FILTRATION
begins in glomerulus of bowmans capsule, causes H2O and dissolved substances to move from glomerulus filtration into bowmans capsule
FIVE FACIAL MUSCLES
frontalis, orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, buccinator, zygomaticus.
FLEXION
bending of a joint decreasing the angle
FLOATING RIBS
bottom two pairs of ribs that do not attach to the sternum
FOUR ADDUCTOR MUSCLES
adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, adductor gracilis
FOUR MUSCLES OF THE ABDOMINAL WALL
rectus abdoninis, external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominis
FOUR MUSCLES OF THE CALF
tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius, and soleus
FOUR QUADRICEP MUSCLES
vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, rectus femoris.
FOUR ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLES
supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor
FRENULUM
anchors tongue to floor of mouth
FRONTAL BONE
forms the forehead
FRONTAL SINUS
located on the frontal lobe
FRONTALIS
flat muscle of the frontal bone, raises eyebrows and wrinkles forehead
FUNCTION OF BLOOD
transports oxygen, waste, nutrients, ions and other substances throughout the body. regulates fluid electrolyte & acid based balance the body temp. protects body from infection and contains clotting factor
FUNCTION OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
injestion, digestion, absorbtion
FUNCTION OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
lower exetremities support body weight, suport and protect soft body organs, enable body to move, store minerals, calcium and phosphorus, red maroow oproduce blood cells
FUNCTIONS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM
remove fluid and waste( urea, nitrogenous waste, ammonia, creatinine,) regulates electrolytes (ph balance), plays role in blood pressure erytrocyte production
GALLBLADDER
connects to billary tree and liver, stores and concentrates bile
GASTROCNEMIUS AND SOLEUS
major muscles on the posterior surface attach to the cancaneus, causes plantar flexion. toe dancers muscle
GLOMERULONEPHRITIS
inflamation of the glomerulus that develops in response to streptococcal infection, large amounts of albumin and other proteins are lost in the urine
GLUMERULUS
urine making structure- formation, filter 180 lt/day 178.5 reabsorbed- tubular, 1.5 lts waste
GLUTEAL MUSCLES
gluteal maximus, gluteal medius, gluteal minimus, located on posterior, abduct the thigh
GOUT
metabolic disorder and occurs when a sharp uric acid crystals deposit
GRANULOCYTES
white blood cells that contain granuals, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
GREENSTICK FRACTURE
incomplete break
HAMSTRINGS
consists of biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, located on the posterior surface of the thigh, flexes the leg at the knee
HEMATOCRIT
seperating blood to find the percentage of blood cells in a sample
HEMATOPOIESIS
process of cell production
HEMOGLOBIN
large protein molecule inside RBC with iron containing substance
HEMOSTASIS
stopping of blood loss
HINGE JOINT
allows movement in one direction
HORMONES OF THE URINARY SYSTEM
aldosterone, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH, PTH
HUMERUS
upper arm bone
HYPERCAPNIA
abnormally high concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood
HYPEREXTENSION
over extending the joint
HYPERTROPHY
overused or overworkd skeletal muscle. cardiac muscle can also hypertrophy.
HYPOCAPNIA
abnormally low concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood
HYPOXEMIA
abnormally low concentration of oxygen in the blood
HYPOXIA
abnormally low concentration of oxygen n the tissues
ILEUM
end part of the small intestines, connects to large intestines 12 feet long
ILIOPSOAS
located on anterior surface, flexes the thigh
ILIUM
largest part of the coxal. flared upper part of the bone
INCOMPLETE PROTEINS
hard to break down
INFERIOR VENA CAVA
takes deoxygenated blood from the lower body and returns it to the right atrium
INFLAMATION OF THE LINING OF THE URINARY TRACT
urethritis, cystitis( lower uti), pyelitis (upper uti)
INFLAMMATION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT
inflamed part of the respiratory system (sinusitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis)
INFLUENZA
contagious upper respiratory infection of vital organs
INGESTION
taking in of food
INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME
volume of air that can be forcefully inhaled after normal inhalation
INTERCOSTAL MUSCLE
located between the ribs and is responsible for raising and lowering the rib cage
INTERIOR STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEY
renal cortex- outer, renal medulla, dark triangle, renal pelvis- pyramids, collect urine
INTERNAL OBLIQUE
part of the lateral wall of the abdomen, runs criss cross with external oblique
INTERNAL SPHINCTURE
involvement in movement
INTERVERTEBRAL DISC
layer of cartilage seperating the vertebrae fom each other
INTRAPLEURAL
layer between the visceral and the parietal
INVERSION
turning the sole of the foot inward
ISCHIUM
most inferior part of the coxal bone, containsischial tuberosity, ischial spine and greater sciatic notch
JEJUNUM
second part of the small intestines, 8 feet long
JOINT
place where two bones meet
JOINT CAPSULE
encloses the joint in a strong sleevelike covering
KUSSMAUL BREATHING
an increase in rate and depth of respiration stimulated by acidosis
KYPHPSIS
exaggerated lumbar curvature(humpback)
LARGE INTESTINES
absorbtion of h2o and electrolytes for balance and hydration temporarily stores waste for elimination
LARYNGOPHARYNX
voice
LARYNX
voice box
LATISSIMUS DORSI
large broad muscle in the middle and lower back region, connects to humerus, brings arms back in a rowing motion
LAYERS OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT
mucosa, submoucosa, muscles, serosa
LEUKOCYTES
protect the body fom infection, contains a neucleus, less numerous than RBC
LEUKOPENIA
deficiency of WBC, defenseless against infection
LIVER
reddish brown organ in RUQ under ribs,largest gland, detoxifies body, stores vitamins, aid in metabolism, controls clotting
LOCATION AND SIZE OF HEART
size of a closed fist, located between lungs midsternum
LORDOSIS
exaggerated lumbar curvature(swayback)
LUMBAR VERTEBRAE
l1-l5, located in the lower back region
LYMPH
clear fluid that resembles plasma
LYMPH NODES
cervical lymph nodes, axillary lymph nodes, inguinal lymph nodes
LYMPH NODULES
masses of lymphocytes and macrophages inside the lymph nodes
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
assists in phagocytosis and immunity
LYMPHATIC VESSELS
carries lymoh toward heart and into blood
LYMPHOCYTES
agranular WBC, immunity, produce t & b cells
LYMPHOID ORGANS
tonsils, thymus, spleen
LYMPHOID TISSUE
helps the body defend against disease
MANDIBLE BONE
lower jaw bone, only bone with a joint
MASSETER
extends from the zygomatic process of the temproal bone to the mandible. closes the jaw
MAXILLA BONE
upper jaw bone , carries the upper teeth
MAXILLARY SINUS
located on the maxilla bone
MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN
mixing, chewing, moving food around
METACARPALS
five bones of the palm of the hand
METATARSALS
five bones of the instep of the foot
MEYLOSUPPRESSION
when the bone marrow doesn't produce sufficient number of blood cells
MICTATE/MICRUATION
urinate
MINERALS
inorganic, necessary for body
MONOCYTES
agranular phagocytic WBC, phagocytosis
MONOSACCHRIDES
one simple sugar, can be easily brokendown
MOUTH
buccal or oral cavity, opening of the digestive tract, contains teeth and tongue
MUCOSA
innermost layer
MUSCLE LAYER
inner/circular, outer/longitudinal mixing, chewing mashing
MUSCLES OF UPPER ARM
triceps brachii, biceps brachii
MYOCARDIUM
thick middle layer of the heart, responsible for contration
NARES
openings
NASAL SEPTUM
divides nasal cavity into right and left
NASOPHARYNX
nose
NEPHRON UNIT
1 million units in each kidney
NEUTROPHILS
granular, highly phagocytic WBC,
NOSE
nasal cavity
NOSTRILS
air enters
OCCIPITAL BONE
base of the skull, with foramen magnum
OLIGURIA
scanty urination, less than 400 ml/day
ORBICULARIS OCULI
sphincter muscle that encircles the eyes, assists in winking, blinking and squinting.
ORBICULARIS ORIS
kissing muscle. sphincter muscle that encircles the mouth.
ORDER OF ABSORBTION
food-mechanical breakdown-move accross lining-vitamin & mineral-bloodstream-elimination
ORGANS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
nose, pharynx, larynx. trachea. bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, lungs
ORGANS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM
2 kidneys, 1 bladder, 1 urethra (8 inches in male), 2 ureters, passageway 4 inches controls rhythmic contractions
ORGANS THAT SECRETE WASTES
kidney, skin, lungs, intestines
OROPHARYNX
mouth
ORTHOPNEA
dyspnea relieved only by sitting up or standing
OSSIFICATION
formation of bones
OSTEOARTHRITIS
degenerative arthritis, or wear nad tear
OSTEOBLASTS
bone forming cells
OSTEOCLASTS
bone destroying cells
OSTEOPOROSIS
loss of bone mass that makes the bones so porous that they crumble under ordinary use
OXYGENATED SIDE OF HEART
left
P WAVE
atrial depolarization ( contraction)
PALATINE BONE
posterior part of the hard pa;ate and the floor of the nasal cavity
PANCREAS
secretes insulin and glucogon, gets rid os bile
PARANASAL SINUSES
maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, spenoid
PARATHYROID HORMONE(PTH)
ca+ reabsorbtion
PARIETAL
outer layer of the lungs
PARIETAL BONE
most of the top of the head and part of the sides
PAROTID
largest gland, if infected mumps
PARTS OF THE BLADDER
detrusor muscle, rugae, trigone, internal sphincter, external sphincter
PARTS OF THE PHARYNX
oropharynx/mouth, laryngopharynx/voice
PATELLA
kneecap
PATHWAY OF BLOOD THROUGH HEART
vena cava - right atrium - tricuspid - right ventricle - pulmonic valve - pulmonary artery - lungs - pulmonary vein - left atrium - bicuspid valve - left ventricle - aortic valve - aorta - arteries of the rest of the body
PATHWAY OF CARDIAC IMPULSE
sa node - av node - bundle of his -right and left bundle branches - purkinje fibers
PECTORALIS MAJOR
large broad muscle that forms the abdominal wall, connects humerus with clavicle, moves arms across the chest.
PELVIC GIRDLE
pelvis, composed of two coxal bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx
PERICARDIUM
stringlike structure that supports the heart
PERISTALSIS
second muscle that helps relax and contract muscles one segment at a time
PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
must be extremely sterile, meant for travelers
PERITONEAL MEMBRANE
extension of the serosa, helps causing blood vessels from spreading infections into the abdominal cavity, mesentery and mesocolon, behind digestive tract, looks like and apron
PERONEUS LONGUS
located on the lateral surface of calf, causes eversion assists in plantar flexion
PHALANGES
fourteen finger bones
PHARYNX
throat, attaches mouth to esophagus
PIVOT JOINT
allows rotation
PLANTAR FLEXION
bending the foot down as if toe dancing
PLEURAL MEMBRANE
outer part of lungs that secrete thin layer of fluid
PLEURISY
inflammation of the pleural membrane
PNEUMONIA
inflammation of the lungs in which the alveoli become filled with exudate
POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY
a genetic disease characterized by the development of multiple fluid filled sacs in the kidneys
POLYSACCHRIDES
many sugars, not easily broken down
POSTERIOR FONTAINEL
smaller triangular shaped
POSTERIOR STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEY
reddish brown, kidney bean shaped
PRONATION
turning hand palm down
PROTEINS
essential amino acid, complete and incomplete
PUBIS
most anterior part of the coxal bone,
PULMONARY ARTERY
carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
PULMONARY CIRCULATION
carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle - pulmonary artery - pulmonary capillaries - exchages co2 for o2- pulmonary vein - left atrium
PULMONARY VEIN
carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
PULMONIC VALVE
located between the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle
PULSE LOCATIONS
temporal, facial, carotid, brachial, radial, femoral, popliteal, tibial, dorsalis pedis
PYELONEPHRITIS
bacterial infection, neglect of uti
PYLONEPHRITIS
bacterial infection of the pelvis of the kidney, caused by a neglected bladder infection the ascends through the ureters to the kidneys
PYLORUS
bottom part of stomach
QRS WAVE
ventricle depolarization ( contraction)
QUADRICEPS FEMORIS
located on the anterior and lateral thigh, extends and straightens
RADIUS
forearm bone located on the thumb side (lateral side0
RBC LIFE SPAN
120 days
REABSORBTION
178.5 lt filters- peritubular- kidney, decides to reabsorb
RECTUS ABDOMINIS
run up and down from sternum to public bone, flexes and bend ther vertebral column.
RENAL CALCULI
also called nephtolithiasis or kidney stones.
RENAL FAILURE
rapid or gradual kidney failure caused by infection, acute hypotensive episodes, exposure to toxins, complications of diabetes, genetic disorders and congenital defects
RESIDUAL VOLUME
volume of air that remains in the lungs after a forceful exhalation
RH FACTOR
antigen located on the surface of RBC
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
inflammation of the synovial membrane
RIBS
contain 12 pairs attached directly to the thoracic vertebrae
RIGHT LYMPHATIC DUCT
drain for the lymph from thee right arm right side of head and thorax
ROTATOR CUFF
group of four muscles that attach humerus to scapula, forms a cuff over humerus, rotates the arm at the shoulder joint,
ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLES
supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor
RUGAE
allows bladder to stretch
S1,S2,S3, & S4
s1 is the closure of the av valves, s2 is the closure of the semilunar valves, s3 & s4 are abnormal unless younger or older
SACRUM
made up of 5 sacrals vertebrae fused together
SALAVARY GLANDS
secretes saliva to help breakdown food
SATORIUS
longest muscle in the body, located on anterior surface of thigh, rotates so that you can sit cross-legged
SCAPULA
shoulder blade, attaches to the clavical
SCOLIOSIS
lateral curvature usually involving the thoracic vertebrae
SECRETION OF URINE
1.5 lt secreted along with urea, nitrogenous waste
SEMILUNAR VALVES
pulmonic and aortic valves between, leaving the ventricles
SEROUSA
outermost layer, lubes abdominal organs
SERRATUS ANTERIOR
located on the sides of the chest and extends from the ribs to the scapula, shoulders are lowered and arms extend
SHOULDER GURDLE
contains clavicle and scapula
SIMPLE FRACTURE
break in bone with no pierced skin
SINOATRIAL NODE
pacemaker of the heart set at 60-100 bpm located upper posterior wall of the right atrium sends electrical impulses to av node
SINUSES
air filled cavities located in the skull, amplifies and increase sound of the voice, frontal ethmoid, sphenoidal, maxillary
SIX MUSCLES OF SHOULDER AND LATERAL CHEST
trapezius, serratus anterior, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, deltoid, rotator cuff
SKELETAL MUSCLE
generally attached to bone, classified as voluntary and straited. produce movement, maintain body posture stabilize joints and help maintain body temperature
SKULL
cranium, facial and mandible bones
SMALL INTESTINES
absorbs nutrients into the blood stream send remainder to large intestines
SMOOTH MUSCLE
generally found in the walls ofviscera. classified as nonstraited and involuntary. aids in organ function
SOURCES OF BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE BRAIN
internal carotid artery and vetebral artery
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
volume/concentration (normal 1.001-1.035 lt)
SPHENOID BONE
butterfly shaped bone that forms the floor and sides of the cranium, contains sella turcica( seat for pituitary gland)
SPHENOIDAL SINUS
located on the sphnoidal bone
SPLEEN
largest lymphoid organ, resevoir for rbc stores until needed, filters blood
SPRAIN
injury to a joint caused by twisting of the joint
STEM CELL
where blood cells are produced in the red bone marrow
STEPS OF BLOOD CLOT
blood vessels contract (vascular spasm), platelets become sticy and adhere to each other called a platelet plug, a fibrin net is formed (blood clotting,coagulation)
STEPS OF URINE FORMATION
filtration, rabsorbtion, secretion
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID
extens from the sternum and clavicle to the mastoid process of the temporal bone. contraction of both muscles causes head to bow. one muscle causes to head to rotate.
STERNUM
breastbone, dagger-shaped bone located on the anterior chest with ziphoid process at tip
STOMACH
secretes emzyme hci which aids in digeston,
STRAIN
injury to a muscle or tendon at a joint
STRUCTURE OF A MUSCLE
sarcomere, myofibrils, muscle fibers, fascicles, muscle, tendon.
STRUCTURES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
mouth, teeth and tongue, salavary glands, pharyns, esophagus, stomach, amall intestines, large intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, rectum, anus
SUBCLAVIAN VEINS
where thoracic and lymphatic duct drains into
SUBMANDIBULAR
under the mandibul
SUBMAXILLARY
under the maxilla
SUBMUCOSA
glands, blood
SUBSTANCE FOR HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION
iron, b12, folic acid and protein
SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
take deoxygenated blood from upper body and returns it to the right atrium
SUPINATION
turning hand palm up
SYMPHYSIS PUBIS
two pubic bones joined together
SYNOVIAL FLUID
lubricates the joint reducing friction
SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
lining thejoint capsule secretes synovial fluid
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION
carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle - aorta - arteries - arterioles - capillaries - exchanges o2 - returns co2 - venules - vena cava - right atrium
SYSTOLE
contraction
T WAVE
ventricle repolarization (relaxed)
TACHYPNEA
rapid breathing
TARSALS
seven bones of the ankle
TEETH
32 in adults, deciduous in baby, size and location dtermine function of each tooth
TEMPORAL BONE
sides of the head close to the ears, include external ausitory canal, zygomatic process, and the mandibular joint
TEMPORALIS
fan shaped muscle that extends form the flat portion of the temporal bone to the mandible
TETANUS
muscle remains contracted, maintains posture
THORACIC AORTA
part of the descending, located behind the heart
THORACIC CAGE
sternum, ribs
THORACIC DUCT
drains lymph from the rest of the body
THORACIC VERTEBRAE
t1-t12, located in the chest region
THREE TYPES OF MUSCLES
skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
THROMBOCYTES
platelets, protect the body from bleeding
THROMBOCYTOPENIA
deficiency of thrombocytes, risk of hemorrhage, bruises, lack of clotting, bleeding
THROMBUS
blood clot
THYMUS GLAND
located behind the sternum and below the thyroid, processes lymphocytes to t-cells, shrinks after puberty
TIBIA
shinbone, weight bearing bone of the lower leg
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
located on the anterior surface, causes dorsiflexion of the foot
TIDAL VOLUME
volume of air moved into and out of the lungs during one respiratory cycle
TONGUE
muscle that facilitates movement of food
TONSILS
palatine, pharyngeal, lingual
TRACHEA
windpipe, 4-5 inches long, 1 inch diameter, splits into r & l bronchi, conducts air to and from the lungs
TRANSVERSE ABDOMINIS
inner most layer of the abdominal muscle. runs horizontal.
TRAPEZIUS
attaches from the occipital to the thoracic vertebrae and scapula, shrugs shoulders, tilts head back
TRICEPS BRACHII
lies along posterior of humerus, boxer muscle
TRICUSPID VALVE
located between the right atrium and ventricle
TRIGONE
floor of bladder, enterance point
TRUE RIBS
top seven ribs that attach directly to the sternum
TWITCH
muscle contracts and fully relaxes
TWO CHEWING MUSCLES (MASTICATION)
masseter and temporalis
TWO MUSCLES OF THE NECK
sternocleidomastoid, trapezius
TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES
monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
ULNA
longer of the 2 forearm bones on the little finger side(medial side)
UNIVERSAL DONOR
blood type o
UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT
blood type ab
UPPER LEG MUSCLES
quadriceps femoris, satorius, hamstrings
UREMIA
blood in the urine
UTI
urinary tract infection
VALVES OF THE LEFT SIDE
bicuspid and aortic valves
VALVES OF THE RIGHT SIDE
tricuspid and pulmonic valves
VARICOSE VEINS
superficial veins
VEINS
carries deoxygenated blood to the heart, except the pulmonary vein
VENULES
carries deoxygenated blood from the capillaries to the veins
VERTEBRAL COLUMN
extends from skull to pelvis
VISCERAL
inner layer of the lungs
VITAL BREATHING CENTER
medulla oblongata
VITAL CAPACITY
maximum volume of air that can be exhaled following maximum inhalation
VITAMINS
small organic, helps cell metabolism
VOCAL CORDS
produces sound
ZYGOMATIC BONE
cheek bones
ZYGOMATICUS
smiling muscle, extends from the corner of the mouth to the cheekbones.

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