Glossary of ABeka History 11 - Chapter 6 - Bold Words
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- (Terms) Battle of King's Mountain (1780)
- patriot victory which prevented a British invasion of North Carolina
- (Terms) Battle of Monmouth (1778)
- took place in New Jersey when Washington tried to stop Sir Henry Clinton before he reached New York City
- (Terms) Battle of Oriskany (1777)
- patriot victory in which American settlers under General Herkimer routed British troops under Colonel St. Leger in New York
- (Terms) Battle of Saratoga (1777)
- patriot victory in which American troops under General Gates defeated British troops under General Burgoyne in New York; considered the turning point in America's War for Independence
- (Terms) Battle of Yorktown (1781)
- patriot victory in which General Cornwallis surrendered to General Washington and American independence was secured
- (Terms) Bonhomme Richard
- the ship of American naval hero John Paul Jones
- (Places) Brandywine (Pennsylvania)
- where Washington attempted to stop Howe's army before it captured Philadelphia in September 1777
- (Terms) Common Sense
- pamphlet published by Thomas Paine in January 1776; encouraged Americans to declare their independence
- (Ideas) Compare the philosophies of John Locke and William Blackstone. Who had a more accurate view of government? Why?
- William Blackstone had a more accurate view of government because he recognized the law of nature is not reason, as John Locke decreed, but rather the will of God. Since the laws of nature carry out the will of God, they are, as they relate to mankind, totally equitable and just. It is man's responsibility to comply with these laws in his relation to his fellow men. Unlike John Locke, William Blackstone was wise enough to understand that because of Adam's fall, man's reason, important as it is, is not sufficient enough for establishing laws to govern mankind and that only in Scripture are such divine laws revealed.
- (Terms) Declaration of Independence
- America's official declaration of independence from Britain; issued July 4, 1774, by the Continental Congress; considered the most important human statement of political principles in the history of the world
- (Terms) Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms
- declaration sent by the Continental Congress in July 1775 to King George III stating their resolve to take up arms to defend American liberty
- (Ideas) Explain what Thomas Paine meant when he called some men "summer soldiers" and "sunshine patriots."
- He referred to those who were willing to fight for a short time but then wanted to go home, either to harvest crops or to escape the rigors of war.
- (Places) Germantown (Pennsylvania)
- where Washington tried again to overcome Howe's army in October 1777 but was defeated
- (Terms) Hessians
- German mercenaries from the state of Hesse hired by George III to fight the colonists
- (Terms) Loyalists
- also called Tories; those who remained loyal to the king
- (Map Skills) Name the battles fought in New Jersey.
- Trenton, Princeton
- (Map Skills) Name the battles fought in South Carolina.
- Camden, King's Mountain, Cowpens
- (Terms) Olive Branch Petition
- petition sent by the Continental Congress in July 1775 appealing to King George III to come to reasonable terms
- (Map Skills) On what bay is Yorktown located?
- Chesapeake Bay
- (Terms) Prohibitory Act
- act of Parliament in December 1775 which prohibited all trade with the colonies and provided for the confiscation of their ships
- (Places) Stony Point (New York)
- American fort recaptured by patriots under General "Mad Anthony" Wayne in 1779 in one of the most daring moves of the war
- (Terms) Treaty of Paris (1783)
- officially ended the American War for Independence in 1783
- (Places) Trenton and Princeton
- Washington captured 1,000 Hessian troops at Trenton in December 1776, and he defeated British troops at Princeton in January 1777
- (Places) Valley Forge (Pennsylvania)
- where Washington and his men spent the winter of 1777-1778
- (Map Skills) What islands did the British cross before pursuing Washington from New York to New Jersey?
- Staten Island, Long Island
- (Identify) What song was played by the British band during Britain's surrender at Yorktown?
- The World Turned Upside Down
- (Identify) What state did the British hope to capture in order to divide the colonies?
- New York
- (Ideas) What was the purpose of the Olive Branch Petition and the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms? What American ideals do these documents reflect? How did the British respond?
- The purpose of these documents was to demonstrate the colonists' desire to reconcile peacefully their differences with England while also stating their firm resolve to take up arms, if necessary, to defend American liberty. These documents reflect the American ideals of liberty, as well as her respect for law and the authority of government. George III and Parliament, however, refused to listen to America's repeated pleas for redress of grievances and determined to bring the colonies into total subjection.
- (Identify) When was the Declaration of Independence adopted?
- July 4, 1776
- (Map Skills) Where is Valley Forge located?
- West of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- (Terms) Whigs
- nickname for patriots; borrowed from those in Britain who opposed a strong monarchy
- (Ideas) Why did the British employment of Hessian troops anger Americans so much? Why do you suppose German troops were needed?
- The Americans thought it was bad enough to have British troops stationed in the colonies; by sending foreign mercenaries, King George had gone too far. The foreign mercenaries may have been needed because many British soldiers questioned the wisdom of war with the colonies and had no desire to come to the American wilderness and fight those they considered fellow countrymen.
- (Ideas) Why did the British seek peace in 1778? Why did the Americans reject their offer?
- After the patriot victory at Saratoga and the allying of France with the Americans, the British view of the war changed. With France on their side, the Americans had a definite advantage. England realized that she would be fighting both her age-old enemy and her estranged American colonies. Thus, the British were ready for peace on honorable terms. However, with the aid of France, America had a good chance to secure her independence, and the patriots were not willing to give up such an opportunity; therefore, they rejected the British terms for peace.
- (Ideas) Why was the song "The World Turned Upside Down" appropriate when performed by the British at Yorktown?
- In spite of all the forces arrayed against them, the American patriots defeated one of the most powerful empires in the world and won its independence against incredible odds; a new nation, dedicated to the principles of freedom and justice, had been born.
- (Places) Yorktown (Virginia)
- where Cornwallis surrendered to Washington in October 1781, virtually assuring American independence
- (Terms) privateers
- private vessels commissioned by Congress or the state governments and equipped with guns to attack British ships
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