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Glossary of A&P Lab Exam 1

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What are the two layers of the serous membrane? (2)
(1)visceral layer (2)parietal layer
NAME
are made up of two layers:the visceral layer and the parietal layer
serous membrane
What is the visceral layer?
covers the organs
What is the parietal layer?
attaches to and covers the ventral body wall
NAME
covers the organs
visceral layer
NAME
attaches to and covers the ventral body wall
parietal layer
What is the differ btwn the pateital layer and visceral layer?
(1)parietal layer-attaches to and covers the ventral body wall (2)visceral layer-covers the organ
What is serous fluid?
is clear, watery fluid that prevents the friction as the organs move with/in the ventral body cavity
NAME
is clear , watery fluid that prevents the friction as the organs move with/in the ventral body cavity
serous fluid
What are serous membranes named for?
the cavities they surround
What is the pluera?
covers the lungs
NAME
covers the lungs
pleura
What is the peritoneum?
the serous membrane that covers the abdominal organs
NAME
is the serous membrane that covers the abdominal organs
peritoneum
What is the pericardium?
covers the heart
NAME
covers the heart
pericardium
What are the three different thoaracic serous memebranes?
(1)pleura (2)pericardium (3)peritoneum
what is retro mean?
backward
NAME
means backward
retro
What is retroperitoneal?
are a few organs that are located posterior to the peritoneum
NAME
are a few oragns that are located posterior to the peritoneum
retroperitoneal
What is mesentery?
encircles and holds the small intestine to the dorsal body cavity wall
NAME
encircles and holds the small intestine to the dorsal body cavity wall
mesentery
What is greater omentum?
is suspended from the inferior portion of the stomach and covers the intestines
NAME
is suspended from the inferior portion of the stomach and covers the intestines
greater omentum
What is the lesser omentum?
suspends the superior portion of the stomach and liver
NAME
suspends the superior portion of the stomach and liver
lesser omentum
What are the differ parts of the axial skeletion? (10)
(1)skull (2)thoracic cage (3)coccyx (4)sacrum (5)intervertebral discs (6)verterbrae (7)ribs (8)sternum (9)costal cartilages (10)verterbral columumn
the sternum is (1) to the vertebrae
anterior
the orbit is (1) to the oral cavity
superior
the heart is (1) to the lungs
medial
the carpus is (1) to the brachium
distal
the right lung and the right kindey are (1)
lateral
the skin (1) to the bones
superficial
What is the clavicle?
the collar bone
NAME
refers to the collar bone
clavicle
What is the scapula?
refers the bones in your shoulder blade
NAME
refers to the bones in your shoulder blade
scapula
How many bones are in your hands?
27
What is the humerus?
the arm bone
NAME
refers to the arm bone
humerus
What is ulna?
is the medial bone of the forearm
NAME
is the medial bone of the forearm
ulna
What is the radius?
is the lateral bone of the forearm
NAME
is the lateral bone of the forearm
radius
What is the carpus?
refers to the bones in your wrist
NAME
refers to the bones in your wrist
carpus
What is the metacarpus?
refers to the bones in the palm of your hand
NAME
refers to the bones in your palm of your hand
metacarpus
What are the phalanges?
are the bones in your toes
NAME
refers to the bones in your fingers
phalanges
What are the two bones of the pelvis gridle?
(1)Os coxae
What does os coaxe mean?
hip bones
NAME
refers to the hip bones
os coaxe
What is the femur?
is the thigh bone
NAME
is the thigh bone
femur
What is the Patella?
refers to the bones in the knee cap
NAME
refers to the bones in your knee cap
Patella
What is the tibia?
is the weight bearing leg bone
NAME
refers to the weight bearing leg bone
tibia
What is the fibula?
refers to the leg bone
NAME
refers to the leg bone that is important for muscle attachment
fibula
NAME
is the weight bearing bone of the two leg bones
tibia
What is the largest and strongest bone in the human skeleton ?
femur
the femur is the (1) and (2) bone in the human skeleton
(1)largest (2)strongest
What is tarsus?
refers to the bones in ankle
NAME
refers to the bones in the ankle
tarsus
What are the matatarsus?
are the five bones btwn the tarsus and phalanges bones in the foot
NAME
are the five bones btwn the tarsus and phalanges bones in the foot
matatarsus
NAME
are the bones in your toes
phalanges
What is the largest tarsal bone?
calcaneus
Calacaneus is the (1)
largest tarsal bone
What is the calcaneus?
is your heel bone
NAME
is your heel bone
calcaneus
What are the different types of epithelium cells in which the classifaction is based on the number of layers? (2)
(1)simple (2)strafied
Simple and strafied epithelia cells are classfied based on their (1)
number of layers
Squamous, cuboidal, and columnar epithelia cells are classfied on the (1)
basis on thier cell shape
What are the different types of epithelium cells that are classfied acording to thier cell shape? (3)
(1)squamous (2)cuboidal (3)columnar
What is a simple epithelia cell?
has a single layer
What is a strafied epithelia cell?
is composed of 2 or more cell layers stacked on top of the other
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
is composed of 2 or more cell layers stacked on top of the other
strafied epithelia
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
has a single layer
simple epithelia cell
What are squamous epithelia cells?
are cells that are flattened and scalelike
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
are cells that are flattened and scalelike
sqaumous epithelia
What are cubiodal epithelia cells?
are boxlike
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
these cellsa are boxlike
cubiodal epithelia cells
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
are tall and columnar shaped
columnar epithelia cells
What are columnar epithelia cells?
are tall and columnar shaped
What do each othe two names of the epithelium mean?

for ex: simple columnar epithelia
(1)first part= the number of cell layers present

(2)secound part= the shape of the cells
What is pseudostrafied epithelia mean?
has single layers of cells of differing hieghts
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
has a single layer of cells of differing heights
pseudostrafied
What are transitional epithelia cells?
are cells that have both strafied and squamous chartersitcs
NAME THIS TISSUE CELL
are cells that have both strafied and squamous characterics
transitional epithelia cells
What are areolar loose connective tissue proper?
is a gel-like matrix w all 3 types of fibers
NAME TISSUE
is a gel-like matrix w all 3 types of fibers
areolar loose connective tissue
What is adipose connective tissue proper?
is martix that is very sparse and has fat cells
NAME TISSUE
is a matrix that is very sparse and has fat cells
adipose connective tissue proper
What is dense reg connective tissue?
has parellel collagen fibers
NAME TISSUE
has parellel collagen fibers
dense regular connective tissue
NAME TISSUE
this tissue can w/stand great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction
dense regular connective tissue proper
Dense regular connective tissue can w/stand great (1)
tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction
NAME TISSUE
has irregularly arranged collagen fibers
dense irregular connective tissue
What is dense irregular connective tissue?
has irregularly arranged collagen fibers
How many bones are in the adult body?
206 bones
NAME TISSUE
can w.stand tension exerted in many directions
dense irregular connective tissue proper
dense irregular connective tissue proper can w/ stand (1)
tensions exerted in many directions
What is the general role of epitehlia tissue?
covering
NAME TISSUE
the general role of this tissue is covering
epithelia
What is the general role of connective tissue?
support
NAME TISSUE
the general role of this tissue is support
connective tissue
What is the general role of muscle tissue?
movement
NAME TISSUE
the general role of this tissue is movement
muscle
NAME TISSUE
the general role of this tissue is control
nervou tissue
What is the general role of nervous tissue?
control
What are the four primary tissues?
(1)epithelial (2)connective (3)muscle (4)nervous
What is a muscle?
a organ
NAME
is a organ
muscle
What is a fasicicle?
a portion of the muscle
NAME
a portion of the muscle
fascicle
What is a muscle fiber?
is muscle cell
NAME
is a muscle cell
muscle fiber
What is a myofibril or fibril?
is a complex organelle composed of bundles of myofilaments
NAME
is a complex organelle composed of bundles of myofilaments
myofibril or fibril
What is sarcomere?
is a segement of myofibril
NAME
is a segement of myofibril
sarcomere
What is myofilament?
exteneded macromolecular structure
NAME
is extended macromolecular structure
myofilament
Muscles are covered externally by the (1)
epimysium
(1) are covered externally by the epimysium
muscles
Fascicle is surrounded by a (1)
perimysium
(1) is surrounded by a perimysium
fascicle
A muscle fiber is surrounded by (1)
endomysium
A (1)is surrounded by endomysium
muscle fiber
NAME MUSCLE
is attached to bone or to the skin
skeletal
NAME MUSCLE
is single very long cylindrical multinucleate cells w very obvisous striations
skeletal
NAME MUSCLE
its three connective tissue components are epimyisum, perimysium, and endmysium
skeletal
NAME MUSCLE
has myofibrils composed of saromeres
skeletal
NAME MUSCLE
can be found in the walls of the heart
cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
has branching of cells, and uni-binucleate and striations
cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
has endomysium attached to fibrous skeletlon of heart
cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
has myofibrils that are of irregular thickness
cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
has no gap junctions
skeletal
NAME MUSCLE (2)
the site of Ca regulation is at the troponin on actin contaning thin filaments
sketeal and cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
the speed of contraction is from slow to fast
skeletal
NAME MUSCLE
the speed of contraction is slow
cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
the speed of contraction is very slow
smooth
NAME MUSCLE
is a single unit muscle in the walls of hollow visercal organs, is also a multiunit muscle in the intrisnic eye muscles
smooth
NAME MUSCLE
is single fusiform, uninucleate,and has no striations
smooth
NAME MUSCLE
its connective tissue components are the endomysium
smooth
NAME MUSCLE
has no T tubules
smooth
NAME MUSCLE
has one tubules in each sarcomere at Z disc
cardiac
NAME MUSCLE
has two tubules in each sarcomere at A-I junctions
skeletal
Skeletal muscles are (1)
voluntary
What are four chracteristic of all muscles? (4)
(1)exictability (2)contractility (3)extensibility (4)elasticity
What are the four functions of muscles?
(1)produce movement (2)maintaining posture (3)stablizing joints (4)generating heat
What are the three connective tissue sheaths of the skeletal muscles/
(1)endomysium (2)perimysium and fascicles (3)epimysium
What is sarocplasm?
part of muscle fiber that is similar to the cytoplasm of other cells but contains large amounts of glycosomes
NAME
is part of muscle fiber that is similar to the cytoplasm of other ells but contains large amounts of glycosomes
sacroplasm
What is myoglobin?
is a pigament that stores oxygen
NAME
is a pigment that stores oxygen
myoglobin
What are striations?
are repeating series of dark A bands and light I bands
NAME
are repeating series of dark A bands and light I bands
striations
A band has lighter stripe in its midsection called (1)
H zone
What is a H zone?
is a ligher stripe in the midsection of the A band
When are H zones visible?
only when the muscle is relaxed
(1) zones are only visible when the muscle is relaxed
H zones
What is the M line?
is a dark line that bisectes the H zone vertically
NAME
is a dark line that biscets the H zone vertically
M line
What is the Z disc?
is a dark area that intterpets the I band in the middle section
NAME
is a dark area that interputs the I band in the middle section
Z disc
What are thick filaments?
extend the entire length of the A band
NAME
extend the lengh of the A band
thick filaments
What are thin filaments?
extend across the I band and partway into the A band
NAME
extend across the I band partway into the A band
thin filaments
What protien makes the Z disc?
nebulin
What is nebulin?
a protien that makes up the Z disc
What are thin filaments made up of?
actin
NAME
are made up of actin
thin filaments
What are G actin?
are subunits of actin
What does G actin stand for?
globular actin
NAME
are subunits of actin
G actin
What is F actin?
are long G actin monomers that are polymerized into long actin filaments
NAME
are long G actin monomer that are polymerized into long actin filaments
F actin
What is tropomyosin?
are rod shaped protiens that spiral about the actin and core and help to stiffin it
NAME
are rod shaped protiens that spiral about the actin and core and help to stiffin it
tropmyosin
What is troponin?
is a three polypeptide complex that is major protin in a thin filament
NAME
is a three polypeptide complex that is major proien in a thin filament
troponin
What are the (3) polypeptide complexes of troponin?
(1)TnI (2)TnT (3)TnC
NAME
is made up of TnI, TnT,and TnC
troponin
What is TnI?
is an inhibitory subunit that binds to actin
NAME
is an inhibitory subunit that binds to actin
TnI
What is TnT?
binds to tropomyosin and helps to postion actin
NAME
binds to tropmyosin and helps to postion actin
TnT
What is TnC?
binds to Ca
NAME
binds to Ca
TnC
What are elastic filaments?
are composed of titin
NAME
are composed of the protein titin
elastic filaments
What are the two basic functions of titin?
(1)holding the thick filaments in place thus maintaining the organization of the A band (2)assisting the muscle cell to spring back into shape after being streched
NAME
holding the thick filaments in place thus maintaing the organization of the A band and assisting the muscle cell to spring back into shape after being streched
titin
What are T tubules?
is the sarcolemma of the muscle cell penetrates into the cell interior to form an elongated tube that is at each A band-I band junction
NAME
is the sarcolemma of the muscle cell penetrates into the cell interior to form an elongated tube that is at each A band-I band junction
T tubules
What is synaptic cleft?
is a gel-like extracellular substance rich in glycoprotiens
NAME
is a gel-like extracellular substance rich in glycoproteins
synaptic cleft
What are synaptic vesicles?
are small membranous sacs containing the neurotransmitter ACh
NAME
are small memranous sacs containing the neurotransmitter ACh
synaptic vesicles
What does ACh stand for?
acetycholine
What is acetylcholinesterase?
is responsible for after ACh binds to ACh receptors, breaking down its building blocks to acetic acid and choline
NAME
is responsible for after ACh binds to ACh receptors, breaking it down its building blocks to acetic acid and choline
acetylcholinesterse
What does GH stand for?
growth hormone
What does TSH stand for?
thryoid stimulating horomone
What does ACTH stand for?
adrencortiotropic hormone
WHat does FSH stand for?
follicle stimulating hormone
What specfic events stimulates GHRH? (6)
(1) low blood level of GH

as well as by a number of secoundary triggers including

(2)estrogens,(3) hypoglycemia,(4) increases in blood levels of amino acids,(5) excerise (6) other types of stressers
NAME
is stimulated by GHRH releases which is triggered by low blood level of GH as well as by a number of secoundary triggers including estrogens, hypoglycemia, increases in blood levels of amino acids, excerise, and other types of stressers
GH
What inhibits GH? (all cases)(5)
is inhibited by feedback inhibition excereted by GH and IGF's (2)hyperglycemia (3)hyperlipidemia(4) obesity (5)emotional deprivation all of which elicit GHIH release
NAME
is inhibited by feedback inhibition excereted by GH and IGF's and by hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, obesity and emotional deprivation all of which elicit GHIH release
GH
What specifcally stimiulates the release of TSH? include indirectly as well (3)
is stimulated by TRH and indirectly by (2)pregrancy (3) cold temperature
NAME HORMONE
is stimulated by TRH and indirectly by pregrancy and cold temperatures
TSH
What is TSH inhibited by? (specfically) (2)
is inhibited by feedback inhibittion exerted by throid hormones on anterior pituritary and hypothalamus (2)GHIH
NAME
is inhibited by feedback inhibittion exerted by throid hormones on anterior pituritary and hypothalamus and by GHIH
TSH
What specfic events can trigger the release of CRH? (3)
(1)fever (2) hypoglycemia (3)other stressers
NAME
is stimulated by CRH stimuli that increases CRH release include fever, hypoglycemia, and other stressers
ACTH
What inhibits ACTH?
feedback inhibition exerted byglucocorticoids
NAME
is ihhibited by feedback inhibition exerted by glucocorticoids
ACTH
What stimulates FSH?
GnRH
NAME HORMONE
is stimulated by GnRH
FSH
What inhibits FSH? (2)
feedback inhibitation exerted by estrogen in females (2) testosterone and inhibion in males
NAME
is inhibited by feedback inhibition exerted by estrogen in females and testosterone and inhibition in males
FSH
NAME HORMONE
its target organs are liver, muscle, bone, cartilage, and other tissue
GH
What does the GH do? (3)
stimulates somatic (2) growth, moblizes fats, (3)spares glucose
NAME HORMONE
stimulates somatic growth, moblizes fats, and spares glucose
GH
NAME HORMONE
it's target organ is the adrenal cortex
ACTH
What organ does TH target?
thyroid gland
What does ACTH do?
promotes release of glucocorticoids and andregoens
NAME
promotes release of glucocorticoids and androgens
ACTH
What organs do FSH target?
ovaries and testes
NAME HORMONE
target the ovaries and testes
FSH
What does FSH do?
stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estrogen and estrogen production (2)in males, stimulates sperm production
NAME HORMONE
in females stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estrogen production and in males, stimulates sperm production
FSH
What does LH stand for?
Lutenizing hormone
What does PRL stand for?
prolactin
What does ADH stand for?
Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin
What does hyposecretion mean?
not enough secertion of a particular hormone
NAME
means thier is not enough secretion of particular hormone
hyposecretion
What is hypersecretion?
is when thier is to much secretion of a particular hormone
NAME
is when thier is to much secretion of a particular homrone
hypersecretion
NAME HORMONE
hyposecretion of this hormone will result in pitutiary dwarfism in children
GH
What will happen if thier hyposecretion of GH?
pituitary dwarfism in children

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