Glossary of A&P Final pt2

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The ____ is a protective mechanism that assist with maintenance of stable enivronment.
Blood-brain barrier
The ____ isolates the brain from general circulation.
Blood-brain barrier
What 3 things creats the blood-brain?
1)contnuous endothelium of capillaries that are interconnected by tight juntions
2)thick basal lamina surrounding external surface of the capillaries
3)astrocytes with bulbous endfeet
The blood-brain barrier is selective rather than an ____ barrier.
Because the blood-brain barrier is selective it is directional and has precise control of ________.
In some regions of the brain the blood-brain barrier is absent allowing bloodborne molecules easy access to neural thissue, why?
The barrier is absent in the pituitary because it allows neurosecretory products to pass into the circulation. Another area called the subfornical organ, a chemoreceptive area, the transcellular transport is required for water balance and other homeostatic functions.
What 2 areas of the brain lack a blood-brain barrier?
2)subfornical organ
What are 3 aspects of the anatomy of the spinal cord?
1)extends froman foramen magunm to the level of the 1st verterbrae
2)Provides 2-way condition pathway to and from the brain
3)it is a major reflex center
The spinal cord is ____ cm long, about how many inches is that?
42cm, about 17in.
The spinal cord is ___ cm thick, about how many inches is that?
1.8cm, about 3/4in.
The spinal cord is considered a major reflex center because it can initiate...
complex patterns of motor activity
What are 2 things that are done by the spinal cord becuase is initiates complex patters of motor acitvity?
1)it is highly stereotyped
2)it is modulated by the brain input
What 3 things protect the spinal cord?
3)CNS (ceribrospinal fluid)
White matter is composed of ______ & ______ nerve fibers that permit communication between different parts of the spinal cord and between the spinal cord and _____.
unmyelinated, myelinated, brain
In white matter, fibers run in which 3 directions?
Each side of the spinal cord is divided into 3 white columns called _______.
Funiculi (or funiculus)
What are the 3 white colums (funiculi) that divide the spinal cord?
Each funiculus is made up of ____ with simliar destinations and functions.
In funiculi, column axons share _______ & ________ characteristics.
functional & structural
Funiculus are relatively uniform in what 3 things?
3)conduction speeds
In funiculus, axons within a tract relay the same type of ______ in ______ directions.
information, the same
All major spinal tracts are a part of __________ that connect the brain with periphery.
multineruonal pathways
What are 4 generalizations about the spinal cord?
2)2 or 3 chain neurons pathways
3)exhibit somatotopy
4)all pathways and tracts
Define: Somatotopy
precise spatial relationships reflects orderly body mapping
In the spinal cord, asending pathways do what?
carry sensory info toward the brain.
Nonspecific ascending pathways are also known as the ____________.
anterolateral pathways
Nonspecific ascending (anterolateral) patways transmit what 3 things.
1)info concerning pain
2)info about temperature
3)info concerning coarse touch
Information about sensations we are aware of but have difficulty localizing precisely travles via the __________.
Nonspecific ascending pathway (aka, the anterolateral pathway)
Specfic ascending pathways are also known as the ________________.
medial lemniscal system
What are 2 generalizations of the specific ascending pathway (medial lemniscal system)?
1)mediate precise, straigt-through transmission of input from a single type of sensory receptor
2)can be localized
What can discriminate touch and vibrations?
the specific ascending pathway
_________ convey information about muscle or tendon stretch to the cerebellum for coordinated skeletal muscle activity.
spinocerebellar tracts
What 3 things make up the ascending pathway of the spinal cord?
1)nonspecific ascending pathways
2)specific ascending pathways
3)spinocerebellar tracts
__________ carry motor information issued by the central nervous system to the somatic nervous system.
Descending pathways
The direct system is also known as the ________ or ________.
pyramidal or corticospinal tract
The indirect system is also known as the _______.
The direct system observes a few_______ and regulates fast and fine (or ____ )movements.
synapses, skilled
The Indirect (Extrapyramidal) system includes all other motory pathways; sometimes referred to as the ___________.
multineuronal pathways
Because the indirect system's multineruonal pathways are complex and multisynaptic, they are mostly involved in what 3 things?
1)axial muscles that maintain balance and posture
2)muscle controlling corase limb movements
3)Head,neck,and eye movement that follow objects in the viusal field
The Peripheral nervous system (PNS) provides the...
links from and to the "real world"
For all its sophistication, the brain is "useless" without information from...
the outside world it resides in.
The PNS includes all neural structurs outside the brain and spinal cord, such as what 4 things?
1)sensory receptors
2)peripheral nerves
3)associated ganglia
4)efferent motor endings
Sensory receptors are specialized structures that respond to changes in the environment, called _____; serve as the interface between the nervous system and the environment(which ____ and _____).
stimuli, external, and internal
In general, sensory receptors are activated by an adequate stimulation that results in local events or ___________ that, in turn, trigger nerve impulese along _______ fibers to the CNS.
Graded potential, afferent
Define: Sensation
our awareness of the stimuli
Define: perception
our interpretation of the meaning of the stimulus
sensory receptors are classified according to what 3 things?
3)structural complexity
What are 5 sensory receptors?
What are 3 sensory receptor location classification?
What are the 2 types of structural complexity of sensory receptors?
1)simple receptors
2)complex receptors
Simple receptors, contain general sensory receptors with what 2 types of dendritic endings?
1)free or naked dendritic endings
2)encapulated dendritic endings
What do complex receptors gather information for?
sense organs
Simple receptors of general sensation are widely distributed, true or false?
The somatosensory system is the part of the sensory system that...
serves the body wall and limbs
The somatosensory system transmits information about several different sensory _____.
The somatosensory system has 3 levels of neural intergraion, what are they?
1)receptor level
2)circuit level
3)perceptual level
In the somatosensory system, processing occurs at the ________ level.
Receptors are _______ for a given stimulus energy.
The more complex the receptor, the less its specificty, true of false?
false, the greater its specificty
Stimuls must be applied within a ________ field.
The smaller the receptive field, the less ability the brain can accuretely localize stimulus sites. True or false?
false, the greater ability the brain can accuretly localize stiumulus sites.
Stimulus energy must be _________.
Generator poterntial lead what 2 things.
1)generation of nerve impulses
2)Info sen to CNS
What is the difference between tonic receptors and phasic receptors?
1)tonic receptors adapt very slowly to stiumli.
2)phasic receptors adapt very rapidly to stimuli.
Define: adaptation
Something, such as a device or mechanism, that is changed or changes so as to become suitable to a new or special application or situation.
In processing at the circuit level is the funtion to deliver _______ to appropriate regions of the cerebral cortex for stiumulus _________ and ______.
impulses, location and perception
In processing at the perceptual level is where the interpretation of sensory ______ occurs in the __________.
output, cerebral cortex
The perceptual level does 2 things to sensation, what are they?
1)Indentifies sensation
2)appreciate sensation
________ comes from the indentification and appreciation of sensations in on the perceptual level.
What are the 6 aspects of sensory perception?
1)perceptual detection
2)magnitude estimation
3)spatial discrimination
4)feature abstraction
5)quality discrimination
6)pattern recognition
In regeneration of nerve fibers, mature neurons divide, thus damage is not a seriou event. True or false?
False, mature nerves do not divide, thus damage is a serious event.
In nerve fibers, does the loaction of the damage impact the ability to regenerate?
In the PNS, axons regenerate at _____ per day.
1.5mm per day
True or false? In axon regeneration, the greater the distance the less chance of recovery.
True or fasle? Regrowth is never the same as orginal neuron.
In cranial nerves, there are ____ pairs of ____ nerves, most serve the ______ and _____ stuctures.
12 pairs, mixed nerves, head and neck
In spinal nerves, there are ____ pairs of _____ nerves, and they are named according to the point they _____ the spinal cord.
31 pairs, mixed nerves, leave the spinal cord
There are 31 pairs of nerves that arise from the spinal cord and supply most parts of the body except for the ____ and some areas of the ____.
head, neck
Spinal nerves connect via what 2 roots (rootlets)?
1)dorsal root
2)ventral root
The spinal nerves are _____ in length, and exit via specific intervertebral _____, and immediately branch.
short, foramen
The nerve plexus is...
complicated, interlacing nerve networks
The nerve plexus occurs in what 4 regions?
True or false? The cervical plexus is found in the head/neck region, while the lumbar plexus is found in the leg region.
__________ is an area of skin innervated by cutaneous branches of single spinal nerve.
All spinal nerves except __ participate in dermatomes.
Any nerve serving a muscle that produces movement at a joint also innervates the joint and the skin over the joint. Who's law is this?
Hilton's Law
Innervation of skeletal muscle contain neromuscular junctions, which are...
jucntions between somatic motor fibers and voluntary muscle
Innervation of visceral muscle and glands contains varicostites, which are...
Junctions between autonomic motor endings and visceral effector, and are simple junctions with wide synaptic clefs
In reflex activity, many of the body's control systems belong to a gerneral category of ________ sequences. Which are known as a _______.
stiumulus-response, reflex
Reflex can be _______ or learned.
What are the 5 components of a reflex arc?
2)sensory neuron (affernt pathway)
3)intergraion center
4)motor neuron (effector pathway)
A reflex arc can be classified functionally ar somatic or autonomic reflex, what is the difference?
1)somatic reflex is the simplest, and involves skeletal muscles. Examples include a strech & knee jerk.
2)Autonomic (or viseral) reflex involves organ muscles and glands
Somatic reflexs are mediated by the _______.
spinal cord
many spinal reflexes occur without involvement of higher ________.
brain center
Because many spinal reflexes occur without involvement of higher brain centers, the brain is not kept informed of most spinal reflexes. True or false?
False, the brain is kept informed of most spinal reflexes.
The brain is kept informed of most spinal reflexes and can ______ or ______.
facilitate or inhibit
Spinal shock is when the spinal cord funtion requires contiunous...
facilitating signals from the brain
Spinal reflex test such as being hammered on the knee with with a rubber hammer to produce a knee jerk is intended to assess the condition of the ________.
nervous system
Test like the "knee jerk" test can give early indication of what?
For _________, the brain must be informed of current state of muscle, along with normal muscle tone.
Normal Muscle Function
Information on muscle state are provided by _______ and _________.
muscle spindles and golgi tendon organs
Muscle tone depends on ________.
Stretch reflexes
Stretch reflexes are intitated by _______ which monitor changes in muscle lenght.
muscle spindle
Muscle spindles are formed by 3-10 ________ (modified skeletal muscle cells) enclosed in a connective tissue capsule.
intrafusal muscle fibers
In muscle spindle, the centeral portion is ________ and serves as _________ surface.
Stretch reflex is essential for normal muscle _____ & _______.
tone & activity
In stretch reflex, the brain is informed of activity so necessary adjustments are pade for _______ and _______.
posture and movement
Strech reflexes are monosnypatic and ipsilateral, true or false?
Golgi tendon reflex cause muscle relaxation and lengtheing in response to _____ thus contracting muscles are inhibited while activating antagonist muscles, this is called _________.
contraction, reciprocal activation
Golgi tendon reflex are polysynaptic, true or false?
_______ protect muscles and tendons subjected to possible damaging stretching force from tearing as well as assisting with the smooth onset ans termination of muscle contraction.
Golgi tendon reflex
Flexor and cross extensor reflex are ______ and ______.
ipsilateral and polysynaptic
_________ is a reflex intiated by painful stimulus, and leads to withdrawal of threatened body part.
Flexor and cross extensor reflex
A flexor and cross extensor reflex is a complex spinal reflex that involves _______ withdrawal and _________ extension.
ipsilateral, contralateral
Sperficial reflexes are elicited by...
gentle cutaneous stimulation
What are 2 types of sperficial reflexes?
1)plantar reflex
2)abdomial reflex
If someone rubs a feather across the bottom of your foot, you will experience an plantar reflex that cause your foot to arch & toes to spread, what is this called?
Babinski's sign
Superficial reflexes are used for clinical evaluations of ____ motor pathways and _____ level reflex arcs.
upper, cord
The autonomic nervous system is also knowns as the __________.
Involunatry nervous system
Why is the ANS also known as the invouluntary nervous system?
It is reflective of its subconscious control
Internal environment stability is due to the coordination of the ______, whose motor neurons innervated ______,______, and _______.
ANS, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
The ANS constantly adjust body conditions for _______.
optimal function
The ANS coordinates various organ systems funtion in response to changing _______ and ______.
conditions and needs
In Somatic nervous system VS. Autonomic nervou system, what is a similarity?
They both are efferent divisions that carry motor commands
In Somatic nervous system VS. Autonomic nervou system, what is a primary strutural differnce?
1)In Somatic NS the motor neurons of the CNS exert direct effect over skeletal muscle.
2)In Autonomic NS the motor neurons of the CNS synapse on visfel motor neurons in autonomic ganglia and it is the ganglionic neurons that control visceral effectors
The ANS is divided into what 2 divisions?
ANS divisions serve the same visceral organs, but most often cause opposite effect, there for the two divisions conterbalance each others activities resulting in smooth running body systems. This is a _______________ relationship.
dynamic antagonistic relationship
When both ANS division serve the same visceral organ this is called_________.
dual innervation
Two ANS divisions may work independently with some stuctures innervated by...
only one division
Two ANS divsions may work together, each...
controlling one stage of complex process
In general, _________ mobilizes body during extreme situations, whereas ________ allows us to unwind as maintenance activities are performed and conserves energy.
sympathetic, parasympathetic
The parasympathetic (craniosacral) division is active in ________ situations; sometimes referred to as ________________ system.
nonstress, resting and digesting system
The parasympathetic divsion is in control of "housekeeping" activities, true or false?
A main goal of the PNS is to keep body energy low; this is accomplished by what 5 things?
1)Decrease metabolic rate
2)Decrease heart rate & blood pressure
3)Increase secreation of salivary and digestive glands
4)increase motlity and blood flow in digesitve tract
5)stimulation of urination and defecation
Activity in the ________ divsion is observed during an emergency or threatening situation, when an individual is excited.
Sympathetic (thoracolumbar) division
The _______ division prepares the body for heightend somatic activity.
sympathetic or thoracolumbar division
The "fight or flight" system is apart of what division of the ANS?
sympathetic or thoracolumbar division
The sympathetic or thoracolumbar division is characterized by what 7 things?
1)stimulation of metabolic rate
2)increased alertness
3)reduced digestive and urinary funtions
4)activation of energy reserves
5)increase respiration rate and dilation of respiratory passageways
6)increased heart rate and blood pressure
7)activation of sweat glands
What are the 2 major neurotransmitters released by the ANS neurons?
1)Acetylcholine (ACh)
2)Norepinephrine (NE)
In ACh-releasing fibers are called ______ fibers.
In NE-releasing fibers are called ______ fibers.
ACh is released by all ________ axons of the ANS and all _____-_____ axons at the synapses with receptors.
preganglionic, parasympathetic-postganglionic
NE is released by ________-_______ fibers.
Effects of ACh and NE are not consistent, and can be _______ or _______ depending on receptor type they bind to.
excitator or inhibitory
Synaptic terminals are different from somatic NS, true or false?
Telodendria form branching networks, each brach contains swollen segments termed a ________.
Varicosities are packed with neuroaltransmitter containting vessels, true or false?
In sympathetic varicosities, chains of _______ pass along or near the surface of _____ cells; observe no specific postsynaptic membrane and receptors for NT are scattered across ______ surface.
varicosities,effector,target cell
What are the 2 types of cholinergic receptors?
Nicotinic receptors are located in _______ of skeletal muscles.
Motor end plate
Nicotinic receptors are located in what 3 areas?
1)motor end plate of skeletal muscle cells
2)all postganglionic neurons
3)hormone-producing cells of adrenal medulla
When ACh binds to a Nicotinic receptor the effect is always ________.
Where are muscarinic receptors found?
On effector cells innervated by postganglionic cholinergic fibers.
When ACh binds to a Muscarinic receptor the effect can be _______ or ______, depending on the target organ.
stimulatory or inhibatory
The effect of ACh binding to a Muscarinic receptor lasts longer than to a nicotinic receptor, true or false?
What are the 2 types of Adrenergic receptors?
1)alpha receptors
2)beta recepotrs
In general, NE binding to alpha receptors are _______ and binding to beta receptors are _______.
stimulatory, inhibitory
Organs that resopond the NE exhibit one or both receptors, however receptor type tends to predominated in certain target organs, true or flase?
In adrenergic receptors, which neurotransmitter has the longer lasting effect, NE or ACh.
With interactions of the autonomic divisions, most organs innervated by both divsions, with partial activity producing a _________ to precisely control viseceral activity.
Dynamic antagonism
The ANS is not under ______ control but is regulated by the CNS.
The Hypothalmus serves as "____" intergrative center of the ANS.
Biofeedback is not used by the ANS, true or flase?
Humans are _______ orgnaisms.
We monitor or environment throug our ________ senses as well as our ___________ senses.
general senses, special senses
What are the 5 senses?
4)sound (hearing)
Sense organs utilize receptor cells referred to as ______.
special sensory receptors
The chemical senses, taste (gustation) is located in the _______, most found ______.
oral cavity, on the tounge
Taste buds are the ________ organ for taste.
sensory receptor
Gustatory are _____ cells.
What 3 cell types make up the sense of taste?
2)supporting cells
3)basal cells
Where are taste cells located?
What are the 5 basic taste sensations?
Is there a global distribution of taste receptors?
What are the 2 parts of the physiology of taste?
1)activation of receptors
2)mechanism of taste transduction
What are the 4 influences on taste sensation?
The chemical senses of smell (olfaction) is located where?
in the roof of the nasal cavity
The olfactory epithelim servs as the_______.
organ of smell
What 4 cell types make up the sense of smell?
1)olfactory receptory cells
2)support cells
3)basal cells
4)bipolar neurons
What are the 2 parts of the physiology of smell?
1)activation of olfactory receptors
2)mechanism of smell transdution
Which sense is our dominat sense?
What are the 4 accessory structures of the eye?
3)lacrimal apparatus
4)extrinsic eye muscle
What is the palpebrae?
What 3 eye accessories are used to protect the eye?
2)paplpebrae (eyelid)
The Lacrimal apparatus creates lacrimal secretions known as ____.
The stucture of the eyeball consists fo what 3 tunics?
1)fibrous tunic
2)vascular tunic (uvea)
3)neural tunic (retina)
The Neural tunic is also known as the ______.
The fibrous tunic is made of dense________ connetive tissue.
What 2 strutures are part of the fibrous tunic?
What is the funtion of the fibrous tunic?
to provide mechanical support and some degree of physical protection.
The fibrous tunic contains strutures that assist in _____.
Does the fibrous tunic have an attachment site?
What are the 3 structures that make up the vascular tunic (uvea)?
2)ciliary body
What are the 4 functions of the vascular (uvea) tunic?
1)provide route for blood vessels and lymphatics that support tissues of the eye
2)regulate amount of light that enters the eye
3)secret and reabsob aqueous humor
4)control shape of lens
The neural tunic, also known as the retina contains what 2 layers?
1)pigmented layer
2)neural layer
Which tunic contains the photoreceptor cells?
nerual tunic (retina)
Aqueous humor returns to circulation after filtering through a network of connective tissue located near the _________, and then enters the __________, also known as the _____________.
base of the iris, canal of Schlemm, scleral venous sinus
The Canal of Schlemm (scleral venous sinus) is a passageway that extends completely around the eye and delivers _________ from the anterior segment to veins in the _________.
aqueous humor, sclera
________ si the processs by which the eye detects light energy, and occurs once light is focused on the retina.
The eye is sensitive to wavelenghts form ____to___nm, the spectrum of ________.
700-450nm, visible light
What are the 2 photoreceptors of the retina?
Photoreceptor cells contain light absorbing molecules called _________, that combines proteins called ________ to form ________.
retinal, opsins, visual pigments
When light is absorbed by retinal, it changes shape using ______ and seperates from opsin.
all-trans isomer
Photoreceptor cells are modified neurons, with "_____" tip embedded in pigmented layer. Outer segment contains visual pigments responsible for "____" light.
apical, catching
Photosrecepotr cells are modified neurons that are valunerable to ______ and _____ to intense light.
damage, sensative
Visual pigment for rods is ______, which forms and accumulates during dark periods; when light is absorbed, retinal chages shape using _________, which trigers transduction process.
rhodopsin, all-trans isomer
Define: all-trans isomer
a bleaching of the pigment
All-trans retinal is coverted back to ________ in an ATP-requiring process, and rejoined to opsin.
11-cis isomer
During _________ all-trans retianl is converteb back to 11-cis isomer in an ATP-requiring process.
Regeneration of Pigment
In phototransduction, only ______ generate actions potential;________ and _________ only generate graded potentials.
ganglion cells, photreceptor cells and bipolar cells
Phototransduction allows light and dark adaptions, true or false?
The ear is divided into what 3 major regions?
1)outer ear
2)middle ear
3)inner ear
Outer ear and middle ear deal with ____ only and are simply designed while the inner ear is more complex and is involoved with both _____ and _______.
hearing, hearing & equilibrium
What are the 4 sturctures that make up the outer ear?
1)Pinna (auricle)
2)external audiory canal
3)ceruminous glands
4)tympanic membrane
The middle ear is made up of what 2 main groups?
What are the 3 occicles of the middle ear?
What are the 2 openings of the middle ear?
1)oval window
2)round window
The physiology of hearing involves the resonance of the _______.
basilar membrane
Flexiblity of the basilar membrane changes along its lenght so pressure waves of different frequencies affect different parts of the membrane causeing what we percieve as _______.
_____ is our subjective interpretation of sound intensity, which deals with amplitude of wave crests, which is the result of the sound waves energy content.
As loudness increses, so does the....
number of hair activted
Essentially, our sense of equilibrium responds to various _____ movements.
Equilibrium and orientation relies not only on information from the inner ear but also on _____ and information from ______ of muscles and tendons.
vision, stretch receptors
Equilibrium and orientation invloves the equilibrium receptors in the ________.
vestibular apparatus
Equilibrium and orientation has what 2 functional parts?
1)static equilibrium
2)dynamic equilibrium
The ________ is a representative hair cell which serves as the receptor cell.
Within the maculae (maculae of saccule & maculae of utricle) you find the ________ apparatuas, also called the ________.
equilibrium apperatus, macula
The macula is found on the walls on the maculae, true or false?
The maculae is in control of _______ equilibrium.
The crista ampullaris is contral of _______ equilibrium.
The Ampulla houses equilibrium receptors called __________.
crista amupllaris

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