Glossary of 9.25.2006 Face, Eyelids & LAcrimal Apparatus, & Scalp

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There are 2 major groups of bones of the skull: ____ & ____
Bones of cranial cavity;
facial bones
The _____ bones form the bridge of the nose.
nasal bones
The ____ bone is small & contributes to MEDIAL WALL of the orbit.
The _____ bone is the bony part of the cheek.
The _____ & ____ form the nasal septum.
vomer & perpendicular plate (of ethmoid bone)
The ____ are paired bones that project from lateral wall of piriform aperature.
inferior concha
Piriform aperature boundries
Lateral/Inferior: inferior concha;
Superior: nasal bones
The ______ bone forms the floor of the nasal cavity/roof of mouth.
palatine bone
The ______ bone has 4 surfaces & 4 processes.
The 4 surfaces of the maxilla are ______, _____, _____, & _____.
base, orbital surface, facial surface, infratemporal surface
The _______ surface forms part of the floor of the orbit.
The _____ of the maxilla faces the nasal cavity.
The 4 processes of the maxilla are ______, _____, _____, & _____.
zygomatic; alveolar; palatine; & frontal
The _____ process projects up to articulate with the frontal bone.
The ____ process articulates with the zygomatic bone.
The _______ process articulates with all the tooth sockets of upper teeth.
alveolar (alveolus refers to tooth socket)
The ______ process forms the roof of the mouth.
The _______ is the largest cavity inside the maxila (which is a hollow bone).
maxillary sinus
The ____ is the largest (and strongest) bone of the face.
The ______ & _____ are the 2 main parts that meet at the ANGLE of the MANDIBLE.
body (horizontal)
ramus (vertical)
The mandible contains 1 process, the ________. Where?
alveolar; articulates w/bottom teeth
The mental protuberance is located ___, while da mental tubercles are located _____.
on either side of protuberance
The ______ is unique to humans.
chin (mental)
The foramina of the face are _____, _____, ____, & ____.
supraorbital, infraorbital, mental, & zygomaticofacial
The supraorbital foramina is located in ______ bone.
The infraorbital foramina is located in ______ bone.
The mental foramina is located in ______ bone.
The zygomaticofacial foramina is located in ______ bone.
Which 3 foramina transmit cutaneous sensory nerves (branches of TRIGEMINAL N.)?
supraorbital, infraorbital, & mental (the nn. & foramina have same name).
The zygomaticofacial foramina contains a branch of the _____ for _____ skin.
trigeminal nn.; over the bony part of the cheek
The ramus of the mandible has 2 processes: _____ & ____
coronoid & condyloid
The head of the _____ process articulates with temporal bone to form _____.
condyloid; TMJ
The ________ is where the temporalis muscle (for mastication) attaches.
coronoid process
The TMJ & _________ are the only SYNOVIAL JOINTS in the skull.
ossicle bones (b/tw ears)
The _____ separates the coronoid & condyloid processes.
mandibular notch
The origin of the masseter muscle is the _______.
zygomatic arch
The facial skeleton forms _/_ of the volume of skull in a newborn. Compare to adult.
1/8; 1/3
The ____ of a newborn skull are well developed, while the ____ are underdeveloped.
ranial skeleton & orbits-well developed;
alveolar processes-underdev.
The ___are very small/absent at birth; they expand during infancy, particularly in ___.
paranasal sinuses; maxilla
The paranasal sinuses are all ______.
The _____ is the largest of all air sinuses.
maxillary air
The maxillary air fills up the majority of the max. body & has 3 surfaces. What?
facial, infratemporal, & orbital
The sinuses add ______ to your voice nd lighten the skull.
ALL sinuses open into ______.
the nasal cavity
The newborn skull lacks a _______.
When does it develop?
mastoid process;
2 years after birth
The mastoid process is formed by the pull of the _______.
The ______ innervates the MUSCLES of the face & emerges from _____.
facial nerve (CN VII); stylomastoid foramen
The stylomastoid foramen is between which 2 processes?
styloid & mastoid
Since a newborn has no ____, delivery can be dangerous if OB pinches that portion of skull. Why?
mastoid process; CN VII can be compressed (it's b/tw syloid & mastoid processes) & Facial Nerve Palsy results.
The _____ muscle is used in raising of eyebrows.
The ____ muscle is used to pull down the corner of the mouth.
depressor anguli oris
The _____ muscle is used to wrinkle the nose.
The muscles of facial expression insert into ___ & originate from ____.
skin; bones of the face
All facial expression muscles have a common _____. What?
embryological origin;
pharyngeal arch 2
The pharyngeal arch is bars of ____ on either side of neck, which gives rise to certain muscles.
The _____ is the nerve that innervates the facial muscles.
CN VII (facial nerve)
Each pharyngeal arch has a _________.
cranial nerve to innervate it
All muscles from pharyngeal arches are innervated by ___ (what type of fibers?).
Special Visceral Efferent (SVE)--these are found only in head & neck
The _____ muscle originates from the epicranial aponeurosis.
The frontalis inserts into ______, and does what action?
eyebrows; raises eyebrows
The orbicularis oculi has 2 parts, _____ (outer part)& _____ (inner part).
orbital part; palpebral part
The orbital part of the orbicularis oculi originates from ______ and circles ____.
medial margin of orbit & medial palpebral ligament; part of orbital surface
How does the orbicularis oculi orbital part close the eye?
forcefully (it's strong & thick)
The palpebral part of the orbicularis oculi is used to close the eye ______ (when?)
blinking; sleeping; light closure of eye
The palpebral part of orbicularis oculi is impt. because ______ (cornea).
cornea will dry out & ulcerate if eye can't close; lacrimal fluid from lacrimal glands won't spread evenly
The ____ muscle purses & protrudes lips (like sucking or whistling)
orbicularis ORIS
The orbicularis oris forms a ______ around the oral opening.
The levator labii superioris has what action?
elevate upper lip
The depressor labii inferioris has what action?
lepress lower lip
The levator anguli oris has what action? Where is it located?
elevates corner of mouth;
The depressor anguli oris has what action?
depress corner of mouth
What action do the zygomaticus major & minor have?
pull up the corner of the mouth
The ________ muscle protrudes the lower lip.
The ______ muscle lies in the superficial fascia of the neck.
The platysma inserts into ____ & has what action?
corner of mouth & lower border of mandible; draws lower corner of mouth to express fright
The buccinator forms the ____ part of the cheek & is DEEP.
The buccinator has 2 origins: ______ & ______
bony & fibrous
The bony origin of the buccinator is from the ____.
alveolar process of maxilla & mandible
The fibrous origin of the buccinator is from ________.
pteryomandibular raphe
A raphe is a ________ between 2 muscles (where 2 muscles meet edge-to-edge).
tendinous intersection
The pteromandibular raphe separates the buccinators from ______ (of pharynx).
superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (of pharynx)
The fibers of the buccinator run _____ to insert into lips, blending with _____.
horizontally; fibers of orbicularis oris
The parotid duct drains the parotid gland & secretions go ________.
into vestibule of mouth
The parotid duct pierces the _________ muscle.
The buccinator _____ the cheek & is used in SMILING, WHISTLING, & BLOWING.
In eating, the buccinator is important because it maintains food between ____.
occlusal surfaces of teeth
The ______ is the space between the teeth & the cheek.
The buccinator is a muscle of _______, not of ______.
facial expression, NOT mastication!
All facial muscles are innervated (motor) by _____.
facial nerve (CN VII)
The facial nerve leaves the _____ fossa & enters opening in temporal bone called ___.
leaves posterior cranial fossa; enters internal auditory meatus
The facial nerve enters the internal auditory meatus along with _____ & _____.
CN VII (vestibulocochlear nerve of middle ear) & labyrinthine artery
After entering the internal auditory meatus, CN VII emerges _____ (where).
base of skull
Upon emerging @ base of skull, CN VII gives off 2 branches, ____ & _____.
posterior auricular nerve; nerve to stylohyoid & digastric muscles
The posterior auricular nerve innervates ___ (facial muscle in back of scalp) & ____.
occipatalis; auricular muscles
The nerve to stylohyoid & digastric muscles innervate ______ muscles.
NECK, NOT face
After giving off 2 branches, the facial nerve dives into ____ & does what?
parotid gland; divides into 5 branches
The 5 branches of facial nerve: ____, ____, ____, ____, ____
temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular, cervical (TZBMC)
The temporal branch of CN VII innervates ____ & ____.
frontalis; superior part of orbicularis oculi
The zygomatic branch of CN VII innervates ____ & ____.
lower part of orbicularis oculi; zygomatic muscles
The buccal branch of CN VII innervates ____ & ____.
buccinator & orbicularis oris
The cervical branch of CN VII innervates the ______.
The marginal mandibular branches of CN VII innervates muscles of __ &__.
lower lip & chin
The zygomatic branch of CN VII passes _____ to zygomatic arch.
superficial (crosses zygomatic arch)
The buccal branches of CN VII run _____ to masseter & go to oral area.
The marginal mandibular branches of can sometimes run _____. Why is this bad?
below mandible into neck; surgical danger in submandibular region
In Bell's Palsy, a sudden onset of _____ occurs.
one sided facial paralysis
Why do you get a drooped corner of mouth in Bell's Palsy?
Levator anguli oris & zygomatic major are parylized.
What are some symptoms of Bell's Palsy?
can't chew, buccinator can't keep food out of vestibule, drool, can't close eyes, tears
What is one possible cause of Bell's Palsy?
Inflamed facial nerve as it traverses b/tw int. aud. meatus & base of skull
Where does facial nerve exit at base of skull?
The stylomastoid foramen
same side
The facial nerve gives off branches within the _____ (b/tw ___ & ____).
facial canal (b/tw int. aud. meatus & stylomastoid foramen)
What are the 3 branches of CN VII given off in facial canal?
greater petrosal n.; nerve to stapedius; chorda tympani n.
The greater petrosal nerve is composed of _____ fibers that supply the _______.
If inflammation of CN VII is proximal to greater petrosal nerve, ¿qué pasa?
lacrimal gland won't secrete fluid
The _____ is a tiny muscle in inner ear that keeps stapes from moving too much.
In Bell's Palsy, many ptx complain of hyperacousis (sens. to noise) b/c ______.
nerve to stapedius normally protects ears from sudden loud sounds, but it is impaired
The chorda tympani nerve comes off just _____ to stylomastoid foramen.
The chorda tympani nerve's fxn is to carry ______ from _____ to brain.
taste fibers from anterior 2/3 of tongue
A Bell's Palsy ptx may complain of __ due to chorda tympani nerve inhibition.
loss of taste on anterior 2/3 of tongue on side of nerve compression
The ______ is the chief SENSORY NERVE of face & head.
Trigeminal Nerve CN V
CN V has 3 major branches: ____, ____, & ____
opthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), & mandibular (V3)
V1, V2, & V3 all have ______ fibers, which supply ______.
GSA (Gen. Somatic Afferent); skin & some mucous membranes of mouth & nose
The GSA of maxillary (V2) & mandibular (V3) supply _____.
upper & lower teeth respectivly
Which of the 3 branches of CN V supply regions of the face & mucous membranes?
ALL (V1, V2, V3)
Only the ______ branch of CN V has efferent nerves, SPECIAL VISCERAL EFFERENT.
mandibular (V3)
The SPECIAL VISCERAL EFFERENT fibers of V3 supply _________.
muscles of mastication
The ganglion of CN V is a swelling that lies in ______.
middle cranial fossa
The ganglion of CN V is much like a ________ of spinal nerve.
dorsal root ganglia
CN V ganglion contains cell bodies of __________ & is STRICTLY _________.
pseudounipolar neurons;
The peripheral processes of CN V ganglion pass out of __, __, or __.
V1, V2, V3
The ____ innervates all of the skin in front of vertex-chin-ear line.
trigeminal nerve (CN V)
V1 innervates what skin?
forehead, upper eye lid & dorsum, lateral to eye, tip of nose
V2 innervates what skin?
lower eyelid, upper lip, side of nose, area in front of temple
V3 innervates what skin?
lower lip, chin, lower part of cheek, part of ear, auricle & temple (reverse L)
The _________ is the only area of facial skin that CN V doesn't innervate.
angle of the mandible
The ______, ____, or ____ get the skin behind the trigeminal region.
cervical nerves, dorsal rami (like greater occipital), or ventral rami
The ________ supplies the skin & mucosa of the cheek.
buccal nerve
The buccal nerve is ____ to the mandible & masseter muscle.
DEEP--it branches to get skin & mucosa
The _________ supplies the buccinator MUSCLE.
buccal branch of cranial nerve VII (facial nerve)
The buccal nerve is a ______ nerve. It comes from _____.
V3 (mandibular division of trigeminal nerve)
The ____ is the main artery of the face.
facial artery
The facial artery is one of 8 branches of the _______, which is a branch of ______.
The facial a. is the only branch of the external carotid that _______.
gives off branches of its own
Where does the facial a. appear first on the face?
lower border of mandible
The facial artery is similar to the splenic artery in that _________.
it takes a torturous course to get to angle of the eye
The _______, ______, & _____ are branches of the facial artery.
inferior & superior labial branches, lateral nasal artery, & angular artery
The ________ is the terminal branch of the facial artery. Where does it end?
angular artery; medial angle of the eye
_____, _____, & _____ arteries supplement the facial artery.
transverse facial, supraorbital, & dorsal nasal arteries
The opthalmic artery is the MAJOR branch off the _______.
internal carotid artery
The _____, _____, & ______ branch off of the opthalmic artery.
supraorbital, infraorbital, & dorsal nasal artery
The opthalmic artery mainly supplies the ______.
The facial vein runs ___& ___ to the facial artery.
parallel & posterior
The facial artery runs ____, while the vein takes on a ____ course.
torteruous; straight
The facial vein begins at the medial angle of eye, by the jxn of which two veins?
supraorbital & supratrochlear veins
The facial vein usually unites with ______.
retromandibular vein
The jxn of the anterior division of retromandibular vein & facial vein is ______.
common facial vein
The common facial vein drains into the _______.
internal jugular vein
There are some comunications b/tw facial vein & deeper veins, including ___ & ____.
superior & inferior opthalmic veins
The superior & inferior opthalmic veins connect the angular vein w/ _______.
cavernous venous sinus inside the skull
The angular vein is the upper part of the ________.
facial vein
The facial vein & opthalmic vein are ______.
Valveless veins in the face are significant because _____________(DANGEROUS).
an infection could get in and travel posteriorly to the cavernous sinus
The deep facial vein lies _____.
in the soft part of the cheek
The deep facial vein connects facial vein to _____.
pterygoid plexus of veins
The pterygoid plexus of veins is connected to ___ by small veins at base of skull.
cavernous sinus
The external nose has both a ____ & ____ framework.
bony & cartilaginous
The ___ bone & ____ contribute to nose's bony framework
frontal bone; nasal bones on frontal process of maxilla
The lower part of the nose has cartilaginous framework; ___ in middle & ___ on sides.
septal (midline); lateral processes of septal cartilages (lateral nasal cartilages)
The U-shaped cartilage that bonds the extarnal nostril is called ________.
greater alar cartilage
The eyelid has 2 fxns: ____ & _____
protection & rest from excess light
palpebra= _________
What are the 5 layers of eyelid?
skin; subcutaneous; palpebral part of orb. oculi tarsal fascia; conjunctiva
The _____ gently closes the eyelids.
palpebral part of orbicularis oculi
The tarsal fascia has 2 parts: ______ & _________
tarsal plates; fascia
The tarsal plates are thickenings of _____. They stiffen the eyelid.
connective tissue
The fascia part of tarsal fascia is also called ______.
orbital septum/palpebral fascia
The tarsal fascia runs from _____ of orbit to _____ of lid.
bony margin of orbit; margin of lid
The ______ is a mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelid.
Where the upper and lower parts of conjunctiva is reflected onto lid is called _____.
bulbar conjunctiva
______ are the points of reflection where bulbar & palpebral conjunctiva are continuous.
The potential space between conjunctiva is called _______.
conjunctiva sac
____ glands are embedded in tarsal plates. They have a ______ secretion.
Tarsal; oily
The tarsal glands keep the eyelids from _____ as well as _____ the lids.
sticking together; waterproof
The tarsal plates are bound to margins of orbit by _______.
medial & lateral palpebral ligaments
The _____ lies just posterior to themedial palpebral ligament.
lacrimal sac
_________ is secreted into the superior fornix of the conjunctiva sac.
Tears/lacrimal fluid
The lacrimal gland lies in upper ________ corner of orbit.
The tiny ducts of lacrimal gland open into ______. There are about ____ ducts.
superior fornix; 12
The 12 or so ducts secrete into the ______.
conjunctival sac
_______ spreads lacrimal fluid across eye.
There is a lacrimal papilla on _______.
each eyelid (2 per eye)
The summit of the lacrimal papilla is a tiny opening called _________.
lacrimal punctum.
The lacrimal punctum is actually the end of the __________.
lacrimal canaliculis
After excess lacrimal fluid is spread over eye, it is suctioned into _____.
lacrimal canaliculi by capillary action
Thelacrimal canaliculi drain into the ____, which lies in the ____ margin of the orbit.
lacrimal sac; MEDIAL
The lacrimal sac drains into nasal cavity by ______.(hence sniffling when crying)
nasolacrimal duct
Glands always receive _____ innervation.
In the lacrimal gland, secretomotor fibers that stimulate the gland are ____.
CN __ is in control of lacrimation, so the axons (pre & para)leave brain in this nerve.
Inside the temporal bone, CN VII gives off _______ nerve.
greater petrosal
The greater petrosal nerve is where the ______ leave.
presynaptic fibers
The greater petrosal nerve (parasymp.) joins the _____, which is sympathetic.
deep petrosal nerve
The cell bodies of the deep petrosal nerve lie in _____.
neck & cervical ganglion
The greater & deep petrosal nerves join and form ______.
nerve of pterygoid canal
The pterygoid canal is a bony canal in _____ (what bone of skull?).
The pterygoid canal leads to pterygopalatine fossa, where _____ lies.
pterygopalatine ganglion
The synapse for PARASYMP. fibers occurs in the ______. This is ONLY PARASYMPATHETIC.
pterygopalatine ganglia
The synapse for SYMPATHETIC fibers occurs in _______.
cervical ganglion
The postsynaptic fibers go through the orbit to get to the ________.
lacrimal gland
The nerve of pterygoid canal exits pterygoid canal & terminates in ______.
pterygopalatine ganglia
Post synaptic fibers run out of pterygopalatine ganglia & connect w/___ (what branch?).
maxillary nerve; ZYGOMATIC NERVE
The zygomatic nerve runs up to the _____, which leads to the lacrimal gland.
The lacrimal nerve is a branch of ____.
The scalp's 5 layers are ___, ___, ___,___, ___
Skin; dense Connective tissue; Aponeurosis; Loose connective tissue; Pericranium
The _______ layer contains the nerves & blood vessels of the scalp.
dense connective tissue
The _______ aponeurosis is where the _____ muscle originates.
epicranial; FRONTALIS
The ______ layer is considered the danger layer b/c spread of rapid infection can occur here.
loose connective tissue
The_____ veins are valveless veins that connect _____. They traverse danger layer.
veins outside of skull w/veins inside skull
If you have an infection in the scalp, it can spread to ____ due to emissory veins.
The _____ is the outer connective tissue of the skull.
The first ___ layers of the scalp stick together & move as a unit.
The scalp is cutaneously supplied by branches of ____ nerve (anteriorly).
trigeminal nerve (all 3 divisions)
The scalp is cutaneously supplied posteriorly by ________.
cervical nerves (i.e. greater occipital & lesser occipital)
The scalp is supplied by 3 branches of the _______. They all ANASTAMOSE!
external carotid artery
What are the 3 branches of the external carotid that supply the scalp?
superficial temporal; posterior auricular; occipital
The scalp is supplied by 2 branches of the _______. They all ANASTAMOSE!
internal carotid artery
The 2 INDIRECT branches of the internal carotid that supply the scalp are ______.
supraorbital & supratrochlear arteries
Severe lacerations of scalp (common in industrial settings) can cause death. Why?
heavy bleeding b/c of anastamoses; arteries are in dense conn. tissue, so if tissue is cut, art. stay open

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