Glossary of 8th Grade SS - Call to Freedom

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What compromis did the U.S. and the American Indians reach to allow miners and settlers to cross Indian lands?
The Treaty of Fort Laramie
What was the federal policy toward Plain Indians in the 1860's and 1870's?
The Treaty of Medicine Lodge
What animals did the plain Indians use and why were they importants?
The plain indians used horse and buffalo. they used horses for transportation and herding buffalo. They used buffalo for food, tools, and shelter.
What caused conflicts between American Indinas and American settlers in the west and what were the results of these conflicts?
The conflicts started when the us asked the N.A.'s to move off their land and onto reservations. The Indians didnt want to and rebelled and started a war.
How did the reservation system and the Dawes Act affect American Indians?
It made Indians have private land over shared land.
How did mining affect the western economy, and what were its risks?
The Western economy grew because of minig and some risks including sickness and a loss of your job.
What innovations helped link the East and the West?
Transcontinental Railroad
What difficulties did the builders of the transcontinental railroad face?
snow drifts
geographical changes
time differences
How did the railroad affect the settlement and development of the west?
The railroad mad it easier to settle in a different place and the devolpment in a R.R. area was factory/industrious like.
What were some of the challenges of mining in the west?
affording equipment
What obsticles did the builders of the ttranscontinenal railroad face?
How did the transcontinental railroad affect the settlement and development of the west?
The railroad made it eadeier to settle in a different place and the development in a R.R. area was factory/industrious like.
What factors led to the cattle boom?
Texas longhorn
open range
cattle kingdom
meat market
What groups settled the Great Plains and what were their reasons for moving there?
became to expensive or not enough land to live

hope for better life
become us citizens
How did the enviroment of the great plains affect settler' farming methods?
THe enviroment made farmers change some of their methods of farming. They had to make due with flat land and also start using dry farming methods.
workers who broke up the sod
shifted the focus from water dependant crops to harder crops
homestead act
acts that gave farmers up to 160 acres of land in exchange for a fee and 5 year living basis
morril act
act that gave 17 million plus acres to state to sell for schools
people traveling in large mass
Cyrus McCormick
person who designed, built, and sold manufactured farm equipment
What roles did communities play in the life on the Great Plains?
-building churces and schools
- met and enjoyed
Who moved to the Great Plains and why did they move there?
- wanted better life
- could afford where they were
- not enough profit
- wanted better life
- not enough profit
- to expensive
What caused some of the confilicts between the Us and the American Indians and what were the results of these conflicts?
There were quite a few conflicts betwwn these 2 groups. One conflict was the Treaty of Fort Laramie. The result of this conflict was America recieving Indian Claims to much of the Great Plains. Another conflict was the Treaty of Medicine Lodge and the result of that one Indians moved on reservations.
How did the reformers change the US govt Indian policy in the late 1800's?
Reformers protested against the US government for stealing food and money for Indians. The congress passed the Dawes General Allotment Act which tried to lessen tradional infulences on Indians and making land ownership private rather than shared.
What factors made mining in th West such a dangerous job?
The factors that made minig dangerous include unsafe equipment, little oxygen, poor lighting, lfoods, caverins, etc.
What effect did the transcontinental railroad have on wester settlement?
The transcontinental railroad increase populational growth. They sold land to settler who wanted to move west.
Why did many immigrants move to the West?
Immigrants came to the west to recieve land grants to improve their lives.
How did settlers use new scientific methods and technology to farm on the Great Plains?
Setterls decided to start using the method of dry farming where you grow crops that are harder and dont need as much water as water dependent plants.
How did US settlement of the West affect American Indians?
The settlement of the West mad Indians move off their land and onto reservations.
exculsive right to make or sell an invention
free enterpris
a business that the government doesnt interfere with
vertical intergration
owning a business that involved each step of manufacturing process
horizontal intergration
owning all the businesses in a certian field
a grouping together of a number of companies under one board of directors
Second Industrial Revolution
period of rapid growth in US manufacturing in the late 1800's
Bessemer Process
process to make stell by melting the iron to quickly remove waste material
Orville and Wilber Wright
bicycle makers who were fascinated in the idea of flying
Thomas Edison
investagated the practical use for electricity
business leader who's focus was on steel production
owner of the nations largest oil refinery
Sherman Antitrust ACt
law that outlawed monopolies and trust that restricted trade
How did steel processing change in the 1850s, and what effect did this change have on the population and economy of the United States?
Because of steel processing, immigration was common, population increased, and poeple could afford steel for their personal needs becasue of the Bessemer Process.
What new source of power became available in the late 1800s, and how were they used?
- engines, machinery

Petroluem & Kerosine
- cooking, home lighting

- light, heat air, communications
Did all business leaders become philanthropist?
Eventually all businessmen became philanthropist because they were pressured by others to donate money.
How did antitrust feelings lead to the Sherman Antitrust Act?
They were the people who proposed it.
What development occured in the steel, oil, and electric power industries during the Second Industrial Revolution?
-electric stove

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