Glossary of 8 - Muscle Metabolism
Other Decks By This User
- to enable continued contraction
- Why is it necessary for muscle to have mechanisms to make ATP quickly?
- b. Exposure of the myosin binding sites on actin.
- Which of these is not an important role of ATP in skeletal muscle contraction?
a. Disconnecting the myosin cross bridge from the binding site on actin at the conclusion of a power stroke.
b. Exposure of the myosin binding sites on actin.
c. Energizing the power stroke of the myosin cross bridge.
d. Energizing the calcium ion pump which actively transports calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
- c. ammonia
- Which of these is not a part of the ATP molecule?
a. adenine nucleotide
b. phosphate groups
d. high energy phosphate bonds
- H2O, ADP + Pi + energy
- Fill in the blanks in the following equation for the hydrolysis of ATP.
ATP + ______ → ______ +______ + _______
- Because the water breaks down the high energy bond btwn. the last phosphate group. The H20 breaks down ATP into ADP & Pi.
- Why is the reaction that releases energy from ATP termed a "hydrolysis" reaction?
- Give a specific example of a hydrolytic enzyme that hydrolyzes ATP into ADP and Pi in muscle cells.
- ADP + Pi + energy → H20 + ATP
- Fill in the blanks in the following equation for the dehydration synthesis of ATP.
_____+ ______+______ → ______ + ATP
- Because the water is removed and a bigger molecule is synthesized from 2 smaller ones.
- Why is the production of ATP from ADP termed a "dehydration synthesis" reaction?
- Because energy is released & like "currency" can be "spent" for moving myofilaments & transporting ions
- Why is ATP often called "energy currency"?
- Muscle cells have only enough ATP to last for ____________ during an active contraction period.
- 1. Hydrolysis of creatine phosphate
3. Kreb's cycle
- List three processes that muscle cells use to make ATP when it is needed for muscle contraction.
- creatine phosphate
- What is the most immediate source of energy for rebuilding ATP within muscle cells?
- creatine phosphate
- Fill in the following blanks to show the production of ATP from Creatine phosphate:
______________ + _____________ → ______________ + ______________
- 1. directly from
2. produced by hydrolysis of glycogen stored in the muscle cell.
- What are the two sources of glucose to muscle cells?
- 1. 2 ATP molecules
2. pyruvic acid
- What are the end products of glycolysis?
- converted to lactid acid
- What happens to pyruvic acid in the absence of oxygen?
- leads to muscle fatigue
- What happens if a muscle is deprived of oxygen for too long when it is physically active?
- What is the name of the oxygen binding protein within muscle?
- Where, within a muscle cell, will the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation occur?
36 ATP molecules
- What are the end products of the aerobic pathway?
- 2 ATP
- The total energy harvest from glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is 38 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule metabolized.
a. How much of that ATP is generated during glycolysis?
b. How much of that ATP is generated during the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation?
- a. anaerobic metabolism, because it provides short bursts of ATP
b. aerobic respiration, because there is more ATP provided for a long duration of muscle activity.
- During which of these activities would creatine phosphate and anaerobic metabolism be more important. During which of these activities would aerobic respiration (Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation) be more important. Why?
a. very fast sprinting for a short distance
b. slow jogging for a long distance
- energy reserves ("oxygen debt")
- After the exercise period is concluded, what reserves have been depleted within the muscle cells? In addition, what by-product tends to build-up in the muscle cell?
- "oxygen debt"
- To restore the ______________ after exercise, muscle cells convert ________________ ,present in the cytosol, back into pyruvic acid, which enters the Krebs cycle, producing ______________, which is used to re-phosphorylate creatine into creatine phosphate. Glycogen is also synthesized from ______________ and additional oxygen re-binds to ________________.
- White muscle fibers & red muscle fibers
- What are the names of the two different types of muscle cells?
- Few mitochondria
have high glycogen content; light color due to reduced reduced myoglobin
have few capillaries
- List several structural features that white muscle cells have that explains why these muscle fibers mainly use glycolysis to synthesize ATP (as opposed to the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation).
- Because it synthesizes ATP quickly & have rapid cross bridge cycling results in fast contractions.
- Why are white muscle fibers also called "fast-twitch glycolytic fibers?"
- Lots of mitochondria
lots of myoglobin
low glycogen content
- List several structural features that red muscle cells have that explains why these muscle fibers mainly use Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation to synthesize ATP (as opposed to anaerobic metabolism).
- Because the cross bridge cycling occurs relatively slowly.
- Why are red muscle fibers also called "slow-twitch oxidative fibers?"
You must Login or Register to add cards