Glossary of 8-History-Greek People

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Greek poet from end of Dark Age, believed to be the author of the Iliad (about the Trojan War) and the Odyssey (about journeys of Odysseus after the fall of Troy), epic poems that told of the deeds of great heroes.

Sir Arthur Evans
Englishman who unearthed the remains of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete.
Heinrich Schliemann (nineteenth century)
controversial German businessman, inspired by stories from the Iliad and the Odyssey, sought and found the sites of Mycenae (Peloponnesus) and Troy or Ilium in modern-day Turkey (originally a site of Greek colonization)
(621 BC)
Athenian appointed by the Athenian archons to bring order to Athens. His solution was to enact very harsh laws, and the result was not a success. From this we get the adjective draconian.
(594 BC)
Greek leader appointed by Athenian archons after Draco. His solution was more middle-of-the road with concessions to both rich and poor. Not appreciated in his lifetime, Greeks came later to understand his policies. From him we get the noun solon, meaning a wise person.
Peisistratus (nib) (560 BCE)
A tyrant whose populist policies ensured him the people’s loyalties. He was succeeded by his sons who, had their “reign” been successful, would have returned Athens to a monarchical form of government.
Cleisthenes (509 BCE)
Founder of Greek democracy; a man whose policies brought some peace to Athens’ divisive politics, and whose ideas were the foundation of democratic ideals.
Lycurgus (nib)( seventh century BCE)
legendary ruler of Sparta; tradition credits him with the constitution that changed Sparta into a military state.
Herodotus (484 – 425 BCE)
“father of history” who wrote about the Persian Wars
Miltiades (550 – 489 BCE)
Athenian military commander at the battle of Marathon
Spartan commander at the battle of Thermopylae
Athenian leader who master-minded the naval battle of Salamis (480 BCE).
commanded the Spartan troops at Plataea
Pericles (495 – 429 BCE)
the man responsible for the beautification of Athens, Athenian leader who led Athens at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War.
Aspasia (c.470 – c.400 BCE)
Pericles mistress and later wife.
Thucydides (460 – 395 BCE)
the author of the Peloponnesian War
Cleon (d.422 BCE)
leader of Athens who succeeded Pericles, regarded as a demagogue and a “hawk” who wanted Athens to be more aggressive.
Nicias (470 – 413 BCE)
Athenian general who brokered a temporary peace between Athens and Sparta and subsequently helped lead the Sicilian expedition, a disastrous attempt by Athens to invade Sicily.
A Spartan commander who had considerable success against Athens.
Alcibiades (450 – 404 BCE)
an Athenian nobleman who persuaded the assembly to embark on the Sicilian expedition; often associated with controversy,He switched sides during the Peloponnesian War
Demosthenes (384 – 322 BCE)
Athenian orator, who spoke against Philip in a series of speeches (phillipics) to little avail.
Philip of Macedon
ambitious King of Macedonia and father of Alexander the Great. Philip’s three goals:
• to raise the economic and cultural level of his people
• to unite the Greek city states under Macedonian rule
• to lead a combined Greek/Macedonian army against the Persian Empire

Alexander the Great
son of Philip. Born to be king, he was educated by Aristotle and succeeded his assassinated father in 336 BCE. He quickly put down any challenges to his authority (despite being only twenty years old), and then moved to invade the Persian Empire. He led armies as far as India over the next thirteen years, before dying of illness in Babylon in 323 BCE.
Thales (624 – 546 BCE)
Ionian philosopher, attempted to find scientific explanations
Democritus (c.460 c. 370 BCE)
Ionian philosopher who believed that all matter was composed of invisible elements (atoma)
Anaximander (c.610 – c.546)
Ionian philosopher who was interested in science.
Hippocrates (c. 460 – 370)
Ionian philosopher and “father of medicine”
Socrates (469 – 399)
Athenian stone mason and “human philosopher” who developed the Socratic method. His approach made traditional Athenians uneasy and he was put on trial for impiety and corrupting the youth of Athens. His famous trial eventually resulted in death by suicide. He left no writings
Plato (427 – 347)
Student of Socrates, wrote ideas about perfection and ideals.
Aristotle (384 -322)
pupil of Plato, wished to observe, analyze, and classify.
What is a Polis?
A City-State
What is an Acropolis?
Fortified high land built for safety
What is an Agora?
What is a Hoplite?
A foot soldier
What is a Plalanx
A row of hoplites who placed one sheild on top of the other
How did the name of the Polis impact the citizens identity?
People were named by their Polis. Ex: John of Athens
What is the most important thing to the citizens of Poleis?
Greek definition of Tyrant (not necessarily negative)
Someone who usurps power
3 places that were colonized by the Greeks
-Southern Italy
-Around the Black Sea

What kind of state is Sparta?
Military State
Did the Spartans prefer colonization or conquering adjacent land?
conquering adjacent land
True or False...The Spartans conquered Messenia and then the Messenians revolted in 640 BC?
Who are the "Spartans?"
Full name for Sparta
Sparta Lacedaemonia
Who are the Perioeci? (Sparta)
Handymen & Merchants
Who are the Helots? (Sparta)
Slaves...usually enslaved people from conquered land or are trying to earn money to get out of debt
What is the Constitution of Lycurgus? (Sparta)
Laid out how state wuold operate. Gave citizens little choice/individuality. Harsh rules.
Why were the Spartans sometimes hesitant to go to war?
They feared a Helot revolt if they left (they outnumbered the spartans almost 10:1)
What ages are Spartan men soldiers?
What is the Peloponnnies League?
A league of cities with alliances in the Peloponnesian penninsula, mostly controlled by Sparta
True or False...Sparta had elements of many forms of government (Monarchy, Oligarchy, Elements of Democracy)
What is the Council of the Aeropagus?
governing council in Athens
What is archon?
magistrate of the Aeropagus
What is a magistrate?
law officer or judge
what is an aristocracy?
the nobles and large landowners
What is an oligarchy?
government by a few
What is a timocracy?
a label used to describe governments that restricted participation to those meeting a certain standard of wealth
government by the people
what is a metic
foreign resident
what is a thete?
a landless farmer who hired out to work for others
What does draconian mean?
adjective derived from Draco meaning excessively harsh.
what is a Strategos?
a military general
What is an ekklesia?
town meeting
What is a Boule?
council of 500 citizens chosen for 1 year terms
What does ostracism mean?
pushing out
What did Greece's mountainous region contribute to?
the results in Greek history
creation of pockets of arable land which could have several towns
Persian Wars Part 1:
Why did Cyrus the Great (Emperor of Persia) Take over Ionian Greek land initially?
To establish a trade market for Persia along the Mediterranean
Persian Wars Part 1:
What did Cyrus the great (Persian Emperor) put in each city-state in Ionia that he conquered (Mainland Greeks did not defend)
He installed a tyrant that answered to him!
(They ruled for 50 years)
Why was Knossos an important archeological disovery?

It exposed the history of the Minoan civilization
The Myceneans were prominent from _____ to _______.

1600-1100 BC
What best describes the story of the Iliad?

the ebb and flow of battle before the walls of Troy
What were the characteristics of a Greek polis?
size and population varied greatly
it was a community of people who shared a common identity
it was a community where responsibilities mattered more than rights

Why did the Greeks send out colonies?
the Dorian invasions
trade opportunities elsewhere

Why were tyrants able to take power is some Greece poleis?
They received support from the newly rich
Which below was not a component of Spartan government
a) 2 kings
b) the ephors
c) the Aeropagus
d) the apella

c) the Aeropagus
Who were the five men responsibile for education of youth and conduct of citizens?
the Ephors
what is the decision making body of aristocrats?
What ancient people/civilization did Arthur Evans discover?
Why did Arthur Evans, the discoverer of the Minoan civilization decide to call is so?
It reminded him of the palace of mythological King Minos
Frescoes...What civilization/of what/what are they
Minoans/dolphins & pictures of prosperity/frescos are pictures painted on damp walls
Why/How did the Minoan civilization end?
-archeologists theorize that it was an earthquake or Mycenaeans took over Crete and destroyed the Minoan civilization
Where on Greece is the Minoan civilization located?
Where on Greece is Mycenae located?
Mainland Greece
Who was Mycenae discovered by?
heinrich schliemann
What was Myceanae known for?
-warrior culture
-decorated knives
What are some of the theories on how the Myceanan civilization ended?
-Foreign invaders--possibly the Dorians
What was the main idea of the Dark Ages (1100-750 BC) of Greece?
Greeks start to move around, split up into groups based on culture, dialect and identity
What are ionic and doric?
types of columns! (ionic looks scroll-like at the top/bottom and doric has rivets all around it)
In Ancient Greece, the sophists were a group of teachers of philosophy and rhetoric (ability to sway an audience)

What is the Odyssey about?
The journey/adventures of Odysseus after the Trojan war
Persian Wars Part 1:
What was the Ionian revolt? Was it sucessful?
Aristagous' plan for each city state in Ionia to revolt against the tyrants and set up their own governement. Yes the city-states return to democracies
Marathon: 1st
Who won & why?

Plains surrounded by hills and seas
Greeks won (Miltiades)suprise attacked enemy

Thermopylae: 2nd
Who won & why?

costal mountains
Persians because a Greek traitor showed them passage through the mountains & they had more men

Salamis: 3rd
Who won & why?

Straits of Salamis (naval battle)
Greeks because their ships were new, light and skillfully handled
Xerces goes home...turning point in war

Platea: 4th
Who won & why?

Plains near Platea
Greeks, spartans made greeks fight their best
Persian commander was killed

How did the Peloponnesian War start?
1. athens & sparta had a history of disagreement
2. agreed to a truce
3. athens made corcyra its ally which violate treaty
4. sparta threatened war

What was Pericles' war stretegy?
Defensive stetegy. knew city was secure.
What was the name of Athen's port?
Peloponnesian War:
What was Pericles' Funeral Oration? What did it say? Why was it important?

1. commemorated soldiers that had fallen in battle
2. it said to but the good of the city before themselves
3. gives historians insight on Athenian democracy

Peloponnesian War:
What caused the Plauge in Athens?
spartans attacking city walls
caused people to move to the center of the city:

Peloponnesian War:
with people moved to the center of the city...why did this cause the Plauge in Athens?
It caused overcrowding, humidity, poor water supply, no sewage...etc. overall bad conditions & disease can spread quickly
Peloponnesian War:
What was Cleon's brutal suggestion when Mytilene wanted to leave the Delian Leauge?
he wanted all the men to be executed and women & children enslaved.
What happened at the battle of Sphacteria?
Athens had a fort & Sparatans tried to attack it but ended up battling and being captured and forced to surrender
What happened at the battle of Amphipolis? Who won?
Athens & Sparta fight for Amphipolis and Sparta won
What is the Peace of Nicias?
Peace treaty supposed to last 50 years...Amphipolis was returned to Athens
Peloponnesian War:
Melian diolouge?
Melos=neutral island in Peloponnese
Athens broke treaty by telling them to either join them or be killed/enslaved
they didn't give in and were severly punished

Peloponnesian War:
What was decelea?
Spartan fort in Athens cut them off from supplies
Peloponnesian War:
What happened at Aegospotami?
(end of war)

Spartan & Athenian fleet were sailing in Hellespont...athenian fleet docked & Sparta seized control and forced surrender. Spartan victory!
What is treeness?
Plato's theory of forms/perception
What are:
& Aristophanes??

Greek Playwrights!

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