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Glossary of 7th Grade Life Science Final

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Archaebacteria  

Group that includes ancient bacteria.

Prokaryotic - Lack a nucleus  

When yeast releases energy from sugar without the use of oxygen.
Fermentation
The one variable that is changed to test a hypothesis.
Manipulated variable
The testing group in which all the variables except one remain the same.
Experimental group
 Different forms of a gene.
Allele
Interphase
The phase that the cell spends most of its time.
How many pairs in the human chromosome?
23
The group that does not receive special treatment which is used to compare results with the experimental groups.
Control group.

 A suggested solution to a problem.    

Hypothesis
The theory that living things come from other living things.
Biogenesis
Organisms have these 8 characteristics:
  • Made up of cells
  • Use energy
  • Move
  • Respond
  • Adjust
  • Reproduce
  • Grow and develop
  • Adapt to their environment
  • Organisms with many cells are organized into
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Organ systems that keep the organism live.
  • Organic compounds contain ?
    Carbon
    What does the cell membrane control?
    What molecules can and cannot pass through it.
    When water diffuses through a selectively permeable membrane it's called?
    Osmosis
    Producers
    Make food through photosynthesis which consumers eat.
    What do oxygen-deprived cells do?
    Carry out fermentation to release small amounts of energy from glucose without using oxygen.
    The four stages of mitosis?
  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telephase
  • Which phase do cels spend most of their time?
    Interphase
    What is DNA made up of?
    Nitrogen bases that direct all the cell's activities.
    Where are chromosomes found?
    The cell's nucleus.
    DNA makes up the genes found on the ?
    chromosomes
    How many of each kind of chromosomes does each body cell normally have?
    2
    Gametes
    Sex cells
    Sex cells only have how many of each kind of chromosome?
    One
    Tool use in genetics to predict the probability of offspring.
    Punnett square
    What do the letters represent in the Punnett square?
    Different Alleles

    True or False

    Heredity features of a species may change over time. 

    True
    Evidence of life from the past.
    Fossils
    Organisms are classified in how many different levels?
    7
    What is the largest, most diverse level of organisms?
    Kingdom
    How many kingdoms of living things are there?
    6
    Organism that is a multi-cellular eukaryote that adapted to life on land with structures such as roots, waxy cuticles, guard cells and stomata.
    Plants
    The factor that changes BECAUSE of the manipulated variable.
    Dependent variable (responding variable).
    Eubacteria  

    Unicellular prokaryotic

    True Bacteria 

    Protists 

    Unicellular

    Eukaryoitc

     Either plant-like, animal-like or fungus-like.

     

    Fungi

    Saprophutes  ( parasites)

    Reproduced by spores

    Boy is a mass of thread-like tubes called hyphae 

     

    What is the function of roots?
    to absorb water
    What is the function of stomata? 
    To conserve water and reduce transpiration.
    What is the function of stems?
    To provide support for leaves.
    What is the function of leaves?
    To make food by photosynthesis.
    What is respiration?
    Release of energy from food.
    What do xylem and phloem tissue do?

    Move materials from one part of the plant to another.
    What is a multicelllular eukaryote that must find and digest their food?
    Animals

    True or False

    Most animals are vertebrates. 

    False
    Examples of simple invertebrates

    planarian

    free-living flatworm

    cnidarians like the jellyfish 

    What are multi-cellular eukaryotes that adapted to life on land with structures such as roots, waxy cuticles, guard cells and stomata?
    Plants
    What is the function of stomata?
    to conserve water and reduce transpiration.
    What is the function of xylem and phloem tissue?
    To move materials from one part of the plant to another.
    What are multicellular eukaryotes that must find and digest their food?
    Animals

    True or False

     

    Most animals are vertebrates. 

    False
    Examples of simple invertebrates  

    Planarian

    Free-living flatworm

    Cnidarians - jellyfish 

    Complex invertebrate examples

    Arthropods - animals with hard outer covering

    Exoskeletons - go through metamorphosis

     

    Nymph
    Little adult - organism that has not finished metamorphosis
    No larva or pupa stages means ...
    Incomplete metamorphosis
    When an animal changes drastically before reaching adult stage in metamorphosis it's called ...
    Complete metamorphosis
    The study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment.
    Ecology
    What does the biosphere consist of?
    Biotic and abiotic factors
    Matter is recycled in the ?
    biosphere
    Energy is passed along the food chain from ? to ? until it is used up.
    From producers to consumers.
    What are the four types of relationships among populations in a community?
  • Parasitism
  • Predator-prey
  • Mutualism
  • Commensalism
  • What 3 comparisons are made when studying ecology?
  • Relationships among populations
  • Habitat
  • Niche
  • Large geographic regions with a distinct climate that influences what type of plants and animals live there.
    Biome
    What determines climate?

    Temperature

    Precipitation 

    What are the six major land biomes?
  • Tundra
  • Tiaga
  • Temperate Deciduous Forests
  • Tropical Forests
  • Grassland
  • Desert
  • The gradual change from one community to another such as a field becoming a forest.
    Succession
    Natural Resources
    Parts of the environment used by organisms for survival.
    Examples of how to conserve natural resources
  • Reuse of items
  • Recycling of items into different products
  • Reduce use of energy
  • Use alternative energy sources (hydroelectric power)
  • A well-tested idea that explains a wide range of observations in science.
    Theory
    Hypothesis
    A suggested solution to a scientific problem.
    The theory that living things come from non-living matter.
    Spontaneous Generation
    Producer
    An organism that can make its own food.
    Organism that cannot make its own food.
    Consumer
    What breaks down organic material and recycles it back into the environment?
    Decomposers
    Tissues
    Made up of groups of cells.
    Similar tissues make up ?
    Organs
    Organ systems
    Made up of similar organs.
    Level of organization

    Cells

    Tissues

    Organs

    Organ systems 

    Characteristics of living things
  • Composed of cells
  • Uses energy
  • Needs water
  • Reproduces
  • Doesn't live forever
  • The movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration and does not require energy.
    Osmosis
    Coming to a conclusion based on observation.
    Inference
    When yeast releases energy from sugar without use of oxygen is called?
    Fermentation
    Organic Compound
    A compound which contains carbon.
    An example of an organic compound.
    Sugar
    Observation
    What you see, hear smell or taste with your senses.
    Respiration
    Process where cells use oxygen to break down sugar for energy.
    Petrified wood is a ?
    fossil
    In a Punnett Square, what are the letters used to represent?
    Alleles
    In a Punnett Square, what are the capital letters used to represent?
    Dominant alleles
    Basic unit of inheritance.
    Gene
    Chromosones are composed of ?
    DNA
    Change in species over time.
    Evolution
    Waxy layer on the outer covering of the leaves.
    Cuticle
    Stomata
    Openings on the underside of the leaf that allows water to exit while letting in carbon dioxide.
    Guard cells
    control the opening and closing of the
    Organs in a plant that are responsible for anchoring, absorbing water and storing food.
    roots
    Photosynthesis
    Process that uses sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to make sugar and oxygen.
    What part of the plant makes food using photosynthesis?
    Leaves
    Green pigment that most plants use to absorb sunlight.
    Chlorophyll
    Xylem
    Vascular tissue that carries water and minerals in a plant.
    What carries food throughout the plant?
    Phloem
    Animals with a backbone.
    Vertebrate
    Animals without a backbone.
    Invertebrate
    External covering on all arthropods.
    Exoskeleton
    Complete metamorphosis stages:
  • Egg
  • Larva
  • Pupa
  • Adult
  • Incomplete metamorphosis stages:
  • Egg
  • Nymph
  • Adult
  • What two factors make up an ecosystem?
    Biotic and Abiotic factors
    Fungi is what kind of a factor?
    Biotic
    Water is what kind of a factor?
    Abiotic

    True or False

    Abiotic factors are non-living. 

    True
    What is an example of the first link in the food chain?
    Plants
    Evaporation
    when water goes from liquid to gas
    When rain, snow, sleet or hail falls to the earth.
    Precipitation
    The two processes that make up the water cycle.
    Evaporation and Precipitation
    Population
    Organisms that are part of one area.
    Flagellates that live in the gut of a termite is an example of?
    Mutualism - both organisms benefit.

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