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Glossary of 308 second half lecture

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Created by tbelsheim

Emotional Intellegence
EI s the ability to monitor ones own and others feelings and emtion, to descriminate amoung thema nd to use this information to guide ones own thinking and action.

contains skills such as

self awareness
social awareness
ability to form positive relations with others
ability to understand what emotions are appropriate for a given situation adn act upon it
knowing how to manipulate own and others emotions motivating ourselves and others.









Measuing EI
3 diminesions
1) perceiving and identifying emotions
2) using emotions to facilitate thought
ability to impact cognitive processes by mobilizing the appropriate emotions.
3) understanding emtion
comprehending teh relationship between emotions
understand how emotions ch
having rich emotional vocabulary that enhances an permits accurate description of different feelings.
4) managing emotions






importance of EI in life
buisness leaders with higher EI have shown to be more effective leaders
children with high social and emtional skills have shown higher achademic acheivement
sence of belonging
life is one big social situation


how do we learn emotional intelligence
modelling learn in from others

foundations

parents siblings relatives
school
peer group

there is cross cultural differnce in emtional expressions which would effect EI

smile in italy vs smile in canada









emotions
multi- component, breif specific responces to challenges or opportunities that are important to a individuals goal
anger vs irritation (CM)
mild arousal and high arousal even though they are both negative emotions
Shame and Guilt
negative high arousal but they really deiffernt

shame produces social withdrawal destructive emotions that is caused by a global attribution style

Guilt is more specific

you admit your were wrong and make amends
constructive emotion.






cognitive dissonance
inconsistency between attitude and Beauvoir, leads to negative arousal
anti attiduninal essay
- Free choice group vs. no choice group
o (not Real Free choice, but the perception of freedom – You don’t have to do this, but I would like you to do it – the illusion of control)
- Which group should change attitude more?
o Free choice – I chose to do this … therefore I must support this idea




emotions can malfunction when
what was a functional responce in an ancestral enviroment is no longer functional

ie snake phobia

over generalized neurotic tendencies

Overwhelming anxiety

depression







stigma attached to mental illnesss
 History of mental illness –not understanding and what to do with it torture/murder of mentally ill –
 Portrayal of mental illnesses – from media – depression and anxiety common disorder but not portrayed while multiple personality is rare yet portrayed often
 People see the condition and not the person



Iowa Card gamem studies and emtions
people have feelings that precede thier conscouis awareness
subjects eventually learn which is the winning and losing eck without actualy know what is giong

twist some of the subjects had damage to the


emotions are an adaptive responce to patterns
amygdala: regulation of fear lesions ot this area caused distrubances in emtions in reaction to fearfull stimuli
ventromedial prefrontal cortex
lesions cause hyper-rationality
inability to commit decisions.
Embodied cognition
studies show that our bodily experinces affect our everyday choices
study
noding vs shaking head while listening to a persuasive speech
if you nod you agree with the message more
arm flexsion vs arm extention makes you analyze the situation differently



stink study
3conditions

control
exposure to fart smell
exposure to stronger fart smell

from a emotional position it activates disgust

did influence the harshness of their moral judgment.











moral dumbfounding
the fact that when you ask people scenarios about it. they say it is wrong but they do not know why

not just a reasoning process going on.

universality of emtions
basic emotions, happy sad, angery, fearfull, possibly digusted and suprised

basic expressions showed by all cultures

facial expression of blind and normally sighted children are similar; expression of basic emotions.



microexpressions
even when people lie their emtions leak out



real smile and micro expressions
real smile vs fake smile
if you smile for real eye muscles open up and look likely they are smiling
fake smile eyes look normal

cant tell by blocking out the smile and just look at the eyes.

content is a upward move of the lip





cultural importance of emotion

happiness

important emotion in North America - pressure to be happy even if your not

Happiness nos important in korea there has to be a reason for it





display rules
of when and how to express emotions

america smiling faces ( normal and expected)
paris make eye contact with somone and smile weird
need a reason to make eye contact.



display rules ekman study
- Japan - in presence of authority figure – no facial expression – neutral
- America – different
- Show – gruesome surgery – that promotes disgust
- Whether or not the experimenter was in the room while the subject watch the video.
o When experimenter was not – both likely to show disgust
o When experimenter was in the room – only Americans show disgust, Japanese don’t show disgust
 Implicit rules – No one tells you that you HAVE TO act this way…







high context vs low context culure
high context - communication indirect suppose to pay attention to not just the content but the emtional tone of voice

low context culture - only focus on the content the meaning of the message, but ignore

i am not angery at you



emtional stroop task study
either pay attention to the meaning and ignore the tone
pay attention to the tone ignore the meaning

english speaking americas were slower at ignoring the meaning and faster at ignoring the tone


cultural specific emtions
 Mamihlapinatapei: native American (southern chile) –this situation– teenagers – boy meets girl, boy likes girl, girl likes boy, both are embarrassed at making the first move even though know that they like each other
 Amae: Japan – relationship setting between romantic partner, or child parent situation, - experienced when a child becomes mildly abusive with the parent and wants something from the parent, and pester them, with knowledge that others will accept it and indulge them. (spoilt)
 Honor: huge culture variation – masculine emotion – if you are man in an honor culture – you feel that defending your reputation in public situation is important



culture of honor study
- University of Michigan – who either grew up in the North or the South,
- Subjects come into lab, fill out questionnaire, and saliva sample (to measure testosterone level (aggression) and cortisol level (stress), then hand in the lab at a long narrow hall way and then do another saliva test
- In the middle of the hall way – meet a confederate blocking the hall way with a file cabinet,
- Condition – shut the door with force, calls the subject asshole and then leave
- Control – no insult, shut the door and leave
- Honor is alive in the South, but not in the North, who are amused
o A lot of crime in the south is honor related







halo effect

beleif that attractive people posses other postive qualites
this leads to treatng nice people better and not as pleasnt looking people wrose

Evidence

MBA receive more money each point on a scale was associated with 2600 in salary
attractive canditates receive 3 times as many votes as unattractive canditates





culture thinness
historically idea of thinness has been morphing to more and mroe thinness over the decades
tragedy - the dramatic rise of eating disorders in north america in young women

men also a culutral swift towards cuter faces. less masculine


what explains the attractiveness to thiness
in culures with unstable food supply men prefer heavier women

study

men who are made to feel poorer or hungry prefer heavier women.



Universals of physical attractivenss
bilateral symmetry facial and body
average features
health complexsion

explanation

features that were associted with reproducive health in our ancestral enviroment are felt to be attractive.





bilateral symmetry
when an organism develops under ideal conditions its right and left sides will be symetrical
symmetry is associated with healthy development
genetic mutations, pathogens or stressors in the womb can lead to asymmetrical development

on average asymmetrical faces are viewed as less attractive



average faces
the more average the face is the more attractivce it will look

computer software take all teh faces make average face the most attractive
more average more attractive

prototypical sitmu.i are processed more easily than one that is further from a prototype. Easy processing is associted with pleasant feeling that gets interpreted as attractive.




clear complextion
people are attracted to healthy mates as our ancestors who had hleath mates had more suvriigng offspring

on average skins signals health more directly than anything else

peopel ahve strong aversive reactions to skin conditions





4 horses of the Apocalypse
criticism
defensiveness
contempt
withdrawal.

what to do to make it better

listen to one another
accept weakness
respect the opposite of contempt.








what is the difference between expressing anger/complaining and contempt?

anger at the situation verses contempt at the person

contempt brings resentment and lingers longer than anger

critism leads to defensivenss.



what are the characteristics of a healthy relationship
expressing feelings verses attacking partner

communicate about small things

acknowledge partners side of view
incorporate humor






Passionate Love
somtimes known as romantic love

intense longing ecstasy/ despair
starts really quickly (but it fizzles over time)


companionative loce
feelings of intamacy, care connection
slow growing but long lasting
romantic love
exists everywhere 89% of subsistence socieites

evolutionary adaptation to ensure that children have adequate protection
if a man had all the qualites that you desired but you did not love them

who would say what

if love has completely disappeared fromt eh marrage, its ok for couples to make a new start

who would say that








are marriages satisfying
most arranged marriages end up becoming loving realtionships even if they start without love

studies find that arranged marrages are at least as hapy as love marrges

arranged vs loved marrages in india
arranged marrages start out with less love, but overtime increased love score

non arranged start out with love but love delciens

arranged marrages more love in the long term.



Haidts Happiness hypothesis
mistakes people make when they enter into a marrage
the more one understands teh challenges the more likley one will beat the odds of divorcing

passionate love - bursts open very intense and then start to subsdie

companionative love starts slow and builds

- Danger point 1 – when people are feeling high – climax of being in love – they decide to get married (it is like signing a paper for life when you are high on cocaine)
- Danger point 2 – when there is a dip in the relationship – very high expectation of marriage and now it is low – so want out of marriage
- Companionate love – the bigger picture
- Couples who marry very early – more likely to get divorce, then couples who were together for awhile before they get married













cohabitation counterinuitative
those who cohabtiate then marry are more likley to divorce after marrage

those who do not cohabitate before marrage are more liley to stayed married

gender differences in mate preference
men prefer women who are younger then themselves

women prefer men who are older then themselves
but there is a sweet spot between 3-6 years

on average men prefer physical attractiveness and young women

on average women prefer status and older age more than men.








largest and smallest gender differences
Chastity (virginity): large cultural variation and unreliable no gender differences Scandinavia vs Palestine

good finical prospects little cultural veriation

what was the cover story that milgram used

a study about learning and punishment

the learner the confederate
the teacher the particapnt




what are some ethical issues brought up by this study
deception
internal harm towards participants stress
participants were not told they could elave the experiment if they wanted
milgram dealt with it by makie sure the paritpcants saw the learner was fine


milgram what were aspects of the situation that further studies looked at
saliency of the victim

behind a wall, cannot see or hear them

behind a wall, but able to hear them

in the same room
the teacher have to force the lerners hand on to the shock place


saliency of the reserach

sitting a few feet away

converse through telephone

a tape recorder

group
when the naive participant was with a group that rejected the experiment
when teh niave particapnt was witha group they went on - they went one

location

presige
yale

or bridgeport.


























milgram what are the effects of the situational aspects
when the victim is more saleint, less likley to shock the learner
when the experiment is less saleint less likley to shock the learner

in group it really depends on waht the group does and the native paritcapnt follows.

when they were in bridgeport less likley to shock.




parental investment theory
- Evolution has instilled in men and women desires that are advantageous to their reproductive success
- Biologically, women invest more in their offspring then men
o the bare minimum that women need to bare an off spring – 9 months
o the bare minimum cost for men - … very very little
- women are the choosier gender in humans (because they invest a lot more)
- women prefer men with resources (age, financial stability, status)-- capacity to invest
- men prefer fertility (youthful appearance)







gender inequality is correalted with for attraction of partners.
d
some conclusions about Gender and mate preferences
systematic average gender differences predicted by parental investment thoery
cultural context plays a more important role than gender for all other traits
complex interaction of life history culture and gender for speicfic preferences

study

ovulating women

show more preference for the tee shirts of symetical men and also men with bold masculine features
the Lucifer effect
the negative that people become not that they already are.
evil is a exerice of pwoer to hurt interionaly physically or emtionally
7 social processes that grease the slippery slope of evil
mindlessly taking the first small step
dehumanization of others
DE individuation of self
diffusion of personal responsibility
blind obedience to authority
uncritical conformity to group norms
passive tolerance to evil through indifference





social influence
the many ways that people impact one another including changes in attitudes beleifs feelings and behvoir
confomrity
changing ones behvoir in responce to a real or imagined pressure

complaince: repsonding fabvourably to an explicit request by another person

obdeince: social influence in which the less powerfull person is in unequal power realtionship and submits to the demands of the more powerfull person



conformist Bias
copy the behavior of the majority
Prestige Bias
copy the behavior of high status individuals

IE. copying rock stars

Chameleon Effect
the non conscious mimicry of expressions, mannerisms, movement and other behaviors of those who with one is interacting.

on a date with someone want it to work well, miicy if one person scratch on the head so should u

Study mimcry
subjects had a 10 minute interaction with another subject (a confederate)

confederate told to mimic or not mimic

when confederate failed to mimic, the participant felt the interaction did not go very well.



emotional contagion
laughter, anger, happiness, depression
contagious you can catch it form people
behvoiral contagion
the case of copycat suicide, obeisty epidemic.

teenager conflict with parents hange themselves, this is typical
copy cat suicide celebrities

obeistiy, party who you hang out with








mass pychogenic illness
people report medical symptoms with no cause, contagious, the case of Tennessee highs school.
mirror Neurons
in the frontal cortex, synchrony in social animals

every time we coordinate our behvoir with others mirror neurons fire.

informational Social Influence
the influence of other people that results form taking their comments or actions as a source of infomration as to waht is correct or proper



Sherif’s Conformity Experiment with the autokinetic illusion
Autokinetic Illusion

- Autokinetic illusion –pitch black room, and stationary light, but after a few seconds of looking at the light, you would see the light moving, due to your eyes moving. How much people see the light moving depends on the individual.
- Subjects come into lab see light- estimate how much the light move in inches
- When subject estimate light alone – a lot of variability
- In Trials – you hear other people’s judgment then you give yours – lead to convergence
- Create an artificial cultural norm in the lab.
When the slowly replace participants, ex. Participant 1 replace with participant 4, trial 4, till slowly all new participants – but the cultural norm stayed the same












normative social influence
the influence of other people that comes from the desire to avoid their disapproval
Asch conformity experiment
- Participants and confederate – go along with the group even if we don’t believe what the group is saying, we still go alone



Factors affecting Normative conformity Pressures
Group size
Group Unanimity
Expertise and Status
culture (individualism for collectivism)
Gender (small effect)
Difficulty of the task - more difficult the task more confomrity
Anonymity, when they were told to write the answer on a perice of paper less likely to conform becaues no one coudl trace who wrote what.





how can societies buffer against obedience effects?
it encourages dissent
tolerance for diverse views
cultivate empathy for victims



case of amadou dialo
shot and killed reaching for his wallet, did not speak English new immigrant.
Facts about discrimination
physically unattractive defendants get harsher prison sentences

black defendants get higher prison sentances than white for the same crime.


tall men get higher status jobs and are paid more than short men

women are payed 80-90 percent of mens salary for the same job with the same qualitications








prejducie
a negative attitude or affective response toward a certain group
discrimination
a negative behvoir towards members of a particular membership or group

stereotypes
beleiufs about attributes that are thought to be characterisic of members of particular groups
realistic group conflict thoery
prejudice and discrimination are likely to arise over compeittion for limited desired resources.

RGC study
correaltion between cotton prices and # of lynchings of black in US south

Robers Cave experiment
A) competition and inter group conflict.
B) reducing intergroup conflict through superordinate goals.

put kids in to groups say teh winner group gets reward you ahve discrimination sterotyping

getting them to work toward the same reward you get them all good together




Earthquake diplomacy
Turkey and Greece were very close to war over territory dispute in the agean sea.


after a earthquake happened to both places they are like man you are alright

earthquake is a superordnate goal




realistic group conflict theory

problem

even if eliminate any possibility conflict still find prejudice
doenst help us understand where prejudice comes from.
jigsaw classroom
students seperated into diverse 6 person learnign groups
lesson divided into six

they need to work together to learn the lesson

greater bondering speicaly ethnically diverse schools






implicit associations test
measure responce time of associations

strong associations in mind produces faster responce that is incompatiable assocaitions.

stronger assocaition is after and more accurate responce.



Adults Implicit Bias and the IAT
not subject to self presentation demands

different from explicit evaluations

prejudice in the mind



prejudice in the mind
85% of Americans show bias of rich with good poor as bad
78% identify American with good, foreigners as bad
77% of Americans show bias against Jews, in favor for Christians
78% have a preference for straights, and a bias against gays






Explicit Intergroup preference
6 year old show the most prejudice

by the time they get to adults they say it doesnt matter but the implicit associtions tests are teh same

children start being prejudiced but socialized to become less prejudice.



under which conditions does each type of attitude predict behvoir
implicit attitudes predict discrimination especially when cognitive resources are taxed

explicit attitudes predict behavoir otherwise.

Evolutionary Account: Parochial Altruism
constant inter group warfare in ancestral environment.

innate tendency for altruism towards in group

hostility towards out group.


us vs them thinking






evolutionary account pathogen avoidance
in ancestral environments foreigners were potneial soruces of unfamiliar pathogens for which immune defence is weak
think bubonic plauge in middle ages.

psychological immune system
weariness of people who look differnt or who are unfamiliar







pathogen avoidance studies
areas with high pathogen rates like equator have more ingroup vs ourgroup behvoir

pregnant mothers during the waek immune phase of pregnancy show more ingroup tendneices.

brewer and Campbell study of intercultural attitudes
studied 30 African societies


findings
people felt most postie attitudes towards groups that
: were geographically nearer
culturally most similar to themselves.





intervention strategies to reduce prejudice and conflict
super ordinate goals

super ordinate identity ie after 911

perceived similarity between groups

multicularism as a value

equal status contact

when people of different groups have no contact with each other more prejudice

when members of a group have one friend in another group reduces prejudice.











why we live in groups
best reliable predictor of brain size is group size
benefits of group living
protection fro predation and from intergroup conflict

collective hunting of big game or coordinated food gathering

cultural learning



social exclusion is painful
virtual ball tossing game
exlucsion associted with lighting up the dorsal anterior singulate cortex pain region

physical pain = social pain


Social faciliation
does the presence of others increase or decrease performance

presence of others enhances dominant response, but inhibits less dominant response

social contact makes people feel more arousal than if they were alone sometimes the arousal is exciting or intimidating presentation.



social loafing
decreased effort put forth by individuals when working in a group

when indivaul differences cannot be accounted for.

social loafing study
ingham

blindfolded participants pulled 18% harder when they thought they were alone, than when they were in a group







explaination of social loafing
diffusion of responsibility

if in group you thinhk you dont have to pull that hard because other people are pulling to

less social loafing when
task is challenging and involving
individuals are identifiable
members are friends
groups are cohesive
in collectivist cultures among women.



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