Glossary of 308 second half lecture
Created by tbelsheim
- Emotional Intellegence
- EI s the ability to monitor ones own and others feelings and emtion, to descriminate amoung thema nd to use this information to guide ones own thinking and action.
contains skills such as
ability to form positive relations with others
ability to understand what emotions are appropriate for a given situation adn act upon it
knowing how to manipulate own and others emotions motivating ourselves and others.
- Measuing EI
- 1) perceiving and identifying emotions
2) using emotions to facilitate thought
ability to impact cognitive processes by mobilizing the appropriate emotions.
3) understanding emtion
comprehending teh relationship between emotions
understand how emotions ch
having rich emotional vocabulary that enhances an permits accurate description of different feelings.
4) managing emotions
- importance of EI in life
- buisness leaders with higher EI have shown to be more effective leaders
children with high social and emtional skills have shown higher achademic acheivement
sence of belonging
life is one big social situation
- how do we learn emotional intelligence
- modelling learn in from others
parents siblings relatives
there is cross cultural differnce in emtional expressions which would effect EI
smile in italy vs smile in canada
- multi- component, breif specific responces to challenges or opportunities that are important to a individuals goal
- anger vs irritation (CM)
- mild arousal and high arousal even though they are both negative emotions
- Shame and Guilt
- negative high arousal but they really deiffernt
shame produces social withdrawal destructive emotions that is caused by a global attribution style
Guilt is more specific
you admit your were wrong and make amends
- cognitive dissonance
- inconsistency between attitude and Beauvoir, leads to negative arousal
- anti attiduninal essay
- - Free choice group vs. no choice group
o (not Real Free choice, but the perception of freedom – You don’t have to do this, but I would like you to do it – the illusion of control)
- Which group should change attitude more?
o Free choice – I chose to do this … therefore I must support this idea
- emotions can malfunction when
- what was a functional responce in an ancestral enviroment is no longer functional
ie snake phobia
over generalized neurotic tendencies
- stigma attached to mental illnesss
- History of mental illness –not understanding and what to do with it torture/murder of mentally ill –
Portrayal of mental illnesses – from media – depression and anxiety common disorder but not portrayed while multiple personality is rare yet portrayed often
People see the condition and not the person
- Iowa Card gamem studies and emtions
- people have feelings that precede thier conscouis awareness
subjects eventually learn which is the winning and losing eck without actualy know what is giong
twist some of the subjects had damage to the
- emotions are an adaptive responce to patterns
- amygdala: regulation of fear lesions ot this area caused distrubances in emtions in reaction to fearfull stimuli
- ventromedial prefrontal cortex
- lesions cause hyper-rationality
inability to commit decisions.
- Embodied cognition
- studies show that our bodily experinces affect our everyday choices
noding vs shaking head while listening to a persuasive speech
if you nod you agree with the message more
arm flexsion vs arm extention makes you analyze the situation differently
- stink study
exposure to fart smell
exposure to stronger fart smell
from a emotional position it activates disgust
did influence the harshness of their moral judgment.
- moral dumbfounding
- the fact that when you ask people scenarios about it. they say it is wrong but they do not know why
not just a reasoning process going on.
- universality of emtions
- basic emotions, happy sad, angery, fearfull, possibly digusted and suprised
basic expressions showed by all cultures
facial expression of blind and normally sighted children are similar; expression of basic emotions.
- even when people lie their emtions leak out
- real smile and micro expressions
- real smile vs fake smile
if you smile for real eye muscles open up and look likely they are smiling
fake smile eyes look normal
cant tell by blocking out the smile and just look at the eyes.
content is a upward move of the lip
- cultural importance of emotion
- important emotion in North America - pressure to be happy even if your not
Happiness nos important in korea there has to be a reason for it
- display rules
- of when and how to express emotions
america smiling faces ( normal and expected)
paris make eye contact with somone and smile weird
need a reason to make eye contact.
- display rules ekman study
- - Japan - in presence of authority figure – no facial expression – neutral
- America – different
- Show – gruesome surgery – that promotes disgust
- Whether or not the experimenter was in the room while the subject watch the video.
o When experimenter was not – both likely to show disgust
o When experimenter was in the room – only Americans show disgust, Japanese don’t show disgust
Implicit rules – No one tells you that you HAVE TO act this way…
- high context vs low context culure
- high context - communication indirect suppose to pay attention to not just the content but the emtional tone of voice
low context culture - only focus on the content the meaning of the message, but ignore
i am not angery at you
- emtional stroop task study
- either pay attention to the meaning and ignore the tone
pay attention to the tone ignore the meaning
english speaking americas were slower at ignoring the meaning and faster at ignoring the tone
- cultural specific emtions
- Mamihlapinatapei: native American (southern chile) –this situation– teenagers – boy meets girl, boy likes girl, girl likes boy, both are embarrassed at making the first move even though know that they like each other
Amae: Japan – relationship setting between romantic partner, or child parent situation, - experienced when a child becomes mildly abusive with the parent and wants something from the parent, and pester them, with knowledge that others will accept it and indulge them. (spoilt)
Honor: huge culture variation – masculine emotion – if you are man in an honor culture – you feel that defending your reputation in public situation is important
- culture of honor study
- - University of Michigan – who either grew up in the North or the South,
- Subjects come into lab, fill out questionnaire, and saliva sample (to measure testosterone level (aggression) and cortisol level (stress), then hand in the lab at a long narrow hall way and then do another saliva test
- In the middle of the hall way – meet a confederate blocking the hall way with a file cabinet,
- Condition – shut the door with force, calls the subject asshole and then leave
- Control – no insult, shut the door and leave
- Honor is alive in the South, but not in the North, who are amused
o A lot of crime in the south is honor related
- halo effect
- beleif that attractive people posses other postive qualites
this leads to treatng nice people better and not as pleasnt looking people wrose
MBA receive more money each point on a scale was associated with 2600 in salary
attractive canditates receive 3 times as many votes as unattractive canditates
- culture thinness
- historically idea of thinness has been morphing to more and mroe thinness over the decades
tragedy - the dramatic rise of eating disorders in north america in young women
men also a culutral swift towards cuter faces. less masculine
- what explains the attractiveness to thiness
- in culures with unstable food supply men prefer heavier women
men who are made to feel poorer or hungry prefer heavier women.
- Universals of physical attractivenss
- bilateral symmetry facial and body
features that were associted with reproducive health in our ancestral enviroment are felt to be attractive.
- bilateral symmetry
- when an organism develops under ideal conditions its right and left sides will be symetrical
symmetry is associated with healthy development
genetic mutations, pathogens or stressors in the womb can lead to asymmetrical development
on average asymmetrical faces are viewed as less attractive
- average faces
- the more average the face is the more attractivce it will look
computer software take all teh faces make average face the most attractive
more average more attractive
prototypical sitmu.i are processed more easily than one that is further from a prototype. Easy processing is associted with pleasant feeling that gets interpreted as attractive.
- clear complextion
- people are attracted to healthy mates as our ancestors who had hleath mates had more suvriigng offspring
on average skins signals health more directly than anything else
peopel ahve strong aversive reactions to skin conditions
- 4 horses of the Apocalypse
what to do to make it better
listen to one another
respect the opposite of contempt.
- what is the difference between expressing anger/complaining and contempt?
- anger at the situation verses contempt at the person
contempt brings resentment and lingers longer than anger
critism leads to defensivenss.
- what are the characteristics of a healthy relationship
- expressing feelings verses attacking partner
communicate about small things
acknowledge partners side of view
- Passionate Love
- somtimes known as romantic love
intense longing ecstasy/ despair
starts really quickly (but it fizzles over time)
- companionative loce
- feelings of intamacy, care connection
slow growing but long lasting
- romantic love
- exists everywhere 89% of subsistence socieites
evolutionary adaptation to ensure that children have adequate protection
if a man had all the qualites that you desired but you did not love them
who would say what
if love has completely disappeared fromt eh marrage, its ok for couples to make a new start
who would say that
- are marriages satisfying
- most arranged marriages end up becoming loving realtionships even if they start without love
studies find that arranged marrages are at least as hapy as love marrges
- arranged vs loved marrages in india
- arranged marrages start out with less love, but overtime increased love score
non arranged start out with love but love delciens
arranged marrages more love in the long term.
- Haidts Happiness hypothesis
- mistakes people make when they enter into a marrage
the more one understands teh challenges the more likley one will beat the odds of divorcing
passionate love - bursts open very intense and then start to subsdie
companionative love starts slow and builds
- Danger point 1 – when people are feeling high – climax of being in love – they decide to get married (it is like signing a paper for life when you are high on cocaine)
- Danger point 2 – when there is a dip in the relationship – very high expectation of marriage and now it is low – so want out of marriage
- Companionate love – the bigger picture
- Couples who marry very early – more likely to get divorce, then couples who were together for awhile before they get married
- cohabitation counterinuitative
- those who cohabtiate then marry are more likley to divorce after marrage
those who do not cohabitate before marrage are more liley to stayed married
- gender differences in mate preference
- men prefer women who are younger then themselves
women prefer men who are older then themselves
but there is a sweet spot between 3-6 years
on average men prefer physical attractiveness and young women
on average women prefer status and older age more than men.
- largest and smallest gender differences
- Chastity (virginity): large cultural variation and unreliable no gender differences Scandinavia vs Palestine
good finical prospects little cultural veriation
- what was the cover story that milgram used
- a study about learning and punishment
the learner the confederate
the teacher the particapnt
- what are some ethical issues brought up by this study
internal harm towards participants stress
participants were not told they could elave the experiment if they wanted
milgram dealt with it by makie sure the paritpcants saw the learner was fine
- milgram what were aspects of the situation that further studies looked at
- saliency of the victim
behind a wall, cannot see or hear them
behind a wall, but able to hear them
in the same room
the teacher have to force the lerners hand on to the shock place
saliency of the reserach
sitting a few feet away
converse through telephone
a tape recorder
when the naive participant was with a group that rejected the experiment
when teh niave particapnt was witha group they went on - they went one
- milgram what are the effects of the situational aspects
- when the victim is more saleint, less likley to shock the learner
when the experiment is less saleint less likley to shock the learner
in group it really depends on waht the group does and the native paritcapnt follows.
when they were in bridgeport less likley to shock.
- parental investment theory
- - Evolution has instilled in men and women desires that are advantageous to their reproductive success
- Biologically, women invest more in their offspring then men
o the bare minimum that women need to bare an off spring – 9 months
o the bare minimum cost for men - … very very little
- women are the choosier gender in humans (because they invest a lot more)
- women prefer men with resources (age, financial stability, status)-- capacity to invest
- men prefer fertility (youthful appearance)
- gender inequality is correalted with for attraction of partners.
- some conclusions about Gender and mate preferences
- systematic average gender differences predicted by parental investment thoery
cultural context plays a more important role than gender for all other traits
complex interaction of life history culture and gender for speicfic preferences
- show more preference for the tee shirts of symetical men and also men with bold masculine features
- the Lucifer effect
- the negative that people become not that they already are.
evil is a exerice of pwoer to hurt interionaly physically or emtionally
- 7 social processes that grease the slippery slope of evil
- mindlessly taking the first small step
dehumanization of others
DE individuation of self
diffusion of personal responsibility
blind obedience to authority
uncritical conformity to group norms
passive tolerance to evil through indifference
- social influence
- the many ways that people impact one another including changes in attitudes beleifs feelings and behvoir
- changing ones behvoir in responce to a real or imagined pressure
complaince: repsonding fabvourably to an explicit request by another person
obdeince: social influence in which the less powerfull person is in unequal power realtionship and submits to the demands of the more powerfull person
- conformist Bias
- copy the behavior of the majority
- Prestige Bias
- copy the behavior of high status individuals
IE. copying rock stars
- Chameleon Effect
- the non conscious mimicry of expressions, mannerisms, movement and other behaviors of those who with one is interacting.
on a date with someone want it to work well, miicy if one person scratch on the head so should u
- Study mimcry
- subjects had a 10 minute interaction with another subject (a confederate)
confederate told to mimic or not mimic
when confederate failed to mimic, the participant felt the interaction did not go very well.
- emotional contagion
- laughter, anger, happiness, depression
contagious you can catch it form people
- behvoiral contagion
- the case of copycat suicide, obeisty epidemic.
teenager conflict with parents hange themselves, this is typical
copy cat suicide celebrities
obeistiy, party who you hang out with
- mass pychogenic illness
- people report medical symptoms with no cause, contagious, the case of Tennessee highs school.
- mirror Neurons
- in the frontal cortex, synchrony in social animals
every time we coordinate our behvoir with others mirror neurons fire.
- informational Social Influence
- the influence of other people that results form taking their comments or actions as a source of infomration as to waht is correct or proper
- Sherif’s Conformity Experiment with the autokinetic illusion
- Autokinetic Illusion
- Autokinetic illusion –pitch black room, and stationary light, but after a few seconds of looking at the light, you would see the light moving, due to your eyes moving. How much people see the light moving depends on the individual.
- Subjects come into lab see light- estimate how much the light move in inches
- When subject estimate light alone – a lot of variability
- In Trials – you hear other people’s judgment then you give yours – lead to convergence
- Create an artificial cultural norm in the lab.
When the slowly replace participants, ex. Participant 1 replace with participant 4, trial 4, till slowly all new participants – but the cultural norm stayed the same
- normative social influence
- the influence of other people that comes from the desire to avoid their disapproval
- Asch conformity experiment
- - Participants and confederate – go along with the group even if we don’t believe what the group is saying, we still go alone
- Factors affecting Normative conformity Pressures
- Group size
Expertise and Status
culture (individualism for collectivism)
Gender (small effect)
Difficulty of the task - more difficult the task more confomrity
Anonymity, when they were told to write the answer on a perice of paper less likely to conform becaues no one coudl trace who wrote what.
- how can societies buffer against obedience effects?
- it encourages dissent
tolerance for diverse views
cultivate empathy for victims
- case of amadou dialo
- shot and killed reaching for his wallet, did not speak English new immigrant.
- Facts about discrimination
- physically unattractive defendants get harsher prison sentences
black defendants get higher prison sentances than white for the same crime.
tall men get higher status jobs and are paid more than short men
women are payed 80-90 percent of mens salary for the same job with the same qualitications
- a negative attitude or affective response toward a certain group
- a negative behvoir towards members of a particular membership or group
- beleiufs about attributes that are thought to be characterisic of members of particular groups
- realistic group conflict thoery
- prejudice and discrimination are likely to arise over compeittion for limited desired resources.
- RGC study
- correaltion between cotton prices and # of lynchings of black in US south
- Robers Cave experiment
- A) competition and inter group conflict.
B) reducing intergroup conflict through superordinate goals.
put kids in to groups say teh winner group gets reward you ahve discrimination sterotyping
getting them to work toward the same reward you get them all good together
- Earthquake diplomacy
- Turkey and Greece were very close to war over territory dispute in the agean sea.
after a earthquake happened to both places they are like man you are alright
earthquake is a superordnate goal
- realistic group conflict theory
- even if eliminate any possibility conflict still find prejudice
doenst help us understand where prejudice comes from.
- jigsaw classroom
- students seperated into diverse 6 person learnign groups
lesson divided into six
they need to work together to learn the lesson
greater bondering speicaly ethnically diverse schools
- implicit associations test
- measure responce time of associations
strong associations in mind produces faster responce that is incompatiable assocaitions.
stronger assocaition is after and more accurate responce.
- Adults Implicit Bias and the IAT
- not subject to self presentation demands
different from explicit evaluations
prejudice in the mind
- prejudice in the mind
- 85% of Americans show bias of rich with good poor as bad
78% identify American with good, foreigners as bad
77% of Americans show bias against Jews, in favor for Christians
78% have a preference for straights, and a bias against gays
- Explicit Intergroup preference
- 6 year old show the most prejudice
by the time they get to adults they say it doesnt matter but the implicit associtions tests are teh same
children start being prejudiced but socialized to become less prejudice.
- under which conditions does each type of attitude predict behvoir
- implicit attitudes predict discrimination especially when cognitive resources are taxed
explicit attitudes predict behavoir otherwise.
- Evolutionary Account: Parochial Altruism
- constant inter group warfare in ancestral environment.
innate tendency for altruism towards in group
hostility towards out group.
us vs them thinking
- evolutionary account pathogen avoidance
- in ancestral environments foreigners were potneial soruces of unfamiliar pathogens for which immune defence is weak
think bubonic plauge in middle ages.
psychological immune system
weariness of people who look differnt or who are unfamiliar
- pathogen avoidance studies
- areas with high pathogen rates like equator have more ingroup vs ourgroup behvoir
pregnant mothers during the waek immune phase of pregnancy show more ingroup tendneices.
- brewer and Campbell study of intercultural attitudes
- studied 30 African societies
people felt most postie attitudes towards groups that
: were geographically nearer
culturally most similar to themselves.
- intervention strategies to reduce prejudice and conflict
- super ordinate goals
super ordinate identity ie after 911
perceived similarity between groups
multicularism as a value
equal status contact
when people of different groups have no contact with each other more prejudice
when members of a group have one friend in another group reduces prejudice.
- why we live in groups
- best reliable predictor of brain size is group size
- benefits of group living
- protection fro predation and from intergroup conflict
collective hunting of big game or coordinated food gathering
- social exclusion is painful
- virtual ball tossing game
exlucsion associted with lighting up the dorsal anterior singulate cortex pain region
physical pain = social pain
- Social faciliation
- does the presence of others increase or decrease performance
presence of others enhances dominant response, but inhibits less dominant response
social contact makes people feel more arousal than if they were alone sometimes the arousal is exciting or intimidating presentation.
- social loafing
- decreased effort put forth by individuals when working in a group
when indivaul differences cannot be accounted for.
- social loafing study
blindfolded participants pulled 18% harder when they thought they were alone, than when they were in a group
- explaination of social loafing
- diffusion of responsibility
if in group you thinhk you dont have to pull that hard because other people are pulling to
- less social loafing when
- task is challenging and involving
individuals are identifiable
members are friends
groups are cohesive
in collectivist cultures among women.
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