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Glossary of 305 final just the most important

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snyder and fromkin
postualted that there is cultural aspect to neeed for uniqueness, differance between here and japan
|TAT
assesses an indivudals personality and self understanding , projective tests allowing for ambiguous stimulu to be presented interpretations were they key
object realtions theory
object realtions emphasizes how peopel come to view reaeltionships wieth outher peopel and encompass thigns such as oru interpersonal wishes and our emtional respoinces to other people (has to do with the tat)
western TAT
demonstrated people with borderline personality disorder typical have very unstable personal relatiionships and this was shown on the tat
eeps
edwards personality preference scheudle: widley used meaure in clinical and counselling situations EEPS uses ipsative scoring which tend to bias scores
ADjective checklist Grough and hellburn
300 adjectives
also includes peronal creativity
the PRF
the personality research form; most promising measure to tap needs (douglas jackson) found 1) asthetic intelectual factors
2) dependance verses authomony
3) oreintation toward work verses play
4) outgiong soical leadership
5) self protective vs submissive orienation



costa mcrae on prf
found linkes between PRF factors and NEO factors
Acheivment motivation
refers to the drive and determintion that a person has to attain goals invovlign work school or job performance (david mclelland)
david mclelland and acheivment motivation
examined peoples fantisies to asses their acheivement motivation
Mcclelland and freidman
explored the association between child training practice an acheivment mtoviation in natuve american , assssed the coding of acheivment imeragy in folk tales , cultures that placed a greater emphasis on independance training adn autonomy also had high elvels of acheivment motivation
Ramirez price williams
investiaged acheivment motivation in black and mexican chidlren found that they had greater family acheivment mtoivation than indiviudal acheivment motivation
atikinsons theory
peope high in acheivment motivation liek moderate tasks, do not lik hard and do not liek easy, has to do with the feedback they recevie
byrne and Mcdonald affiliation motivition
used scoring format for tat responces showed, people with high affiliation motivation prouces troies reflecign high appraoch tendencies and low avoidance tendiceis.
hill; interperosonal orienation scale
demonstrated that there are different motives that may operate within the same motivation domain, two peopel can hve equal need to be with outher peiopel but htis can be expressed in differant ways.
festingers similarity hypothesis
beleif that we perfer to compare ourselves to people who are similar to us becuase that provies us with the most feedback
Winters power motive
need to have a impact on outhers and the world at large, reflected effectance
winter
presidents, richard nixon need for acheivment bad need for power good
schtese need for power tesosterone study
found peopel wiht high need for power had elevated leves of tesosterone to the godfateher, chickflick, elevated leves of progerstrones
robert emmons
presonal strivings reflect persoanlity traight and other perosnal charactrersiics
acheivment mtoivation
power motivation
intamcy motivation
higher acheirvment more





brain little
prsosnal projects, set of interrelated acts extendign over time, personal projets are similar although not identical to life tasks an dpersonal strivings, focus on the issues relevant to a persons life.
tafarodi
Tafarodi et al. (2004):
Canadian and Japanese students do not differ in their overall level of need for uniqueness, but hey did differ in how the need was expressed.
Japanese students are less likely to act in a way that makes them stand out.



simons et al
students with greater acheimvent strivigns reporred fewere alchol realted problesm than students with less acheivment strivings
schutlese
less sexual activity amount peopel low in power motivation
what percentage of the poplulation is self acutalized
maslow: 1 percent
maslow process oreinted view
person could reach a state of being self acutlaized but cut lose the state
characteristics of self acutalized
superior perception fo reality
increased accpetance of self of others of nature
increased spontinatiety and creativeness
incrased problem centering
increased desire for praivacy
greatre freshness of appraiction
higher requency of mystiacl peak experinces
changed interperonal realtions
more deocratic characterstucture







desacrilziing
a defensive way of minmizing and irnoing the sacred value of being needs
jonah complex
type of nerosis, people are afriad to raech thier full ptoental
alexander
trascendental mediationw as mucb more effective than relaxation trainign in rasiing levels of self acutalizertion
flett and perfection
more striving for perfection less self acutalization
kasser and ryan
the pursuit of extranl goals such as becomeing wealthy assoicted negativly with self acutlization, while pursuitng intrisnic goals and goals such as contirubing to ojens comunity and associted with incrsed self acutaliztion
carver and baird
self actualization was not lower for people who pursuited external goals such as become wealthy if they did it for self determiend reasosn that reflected a sense of persoanl autonomy and self contorl
domingez and carlton
authortiative aprenting from both parents was linked with self acutalization
guttman scale analysiss
realted to datat of the hirachy of needs
lecaric et al
self actualization is a dynamic proces rather than an end state
Hostede
pointed to maslows heriachal model as an exmaple of a over exrapolting models with indiviuasitic oreintation
yang
differant heirachal models of people in indiviudalistic verses collective
common theemses in humanists
central role of personal growth
importance of openess to personal expeirnce
living in the here and now
the inherent goodness of epople
empahsis on the phenomoly of the indivudal nad unique percpetions and view poitns of each perosn
theme of personal responciblity
we are all capable of potenital levels of greatness





defcicny motives and maslow
maslow beleived that neuris can be regared as a deificny deases a neurotic indivudal needs somthign that is absent
whishes for saftey belngonigness idneitifaciton love realtinshisp and respcts and prestige
maslow and neurosis
neurosis represnts a loss of capacity or capability
heirachy of needs
phsyiolgical
saftey
belonging love needs
esteem needs
self acutalization



d love
a deficent form of love that invoels asatsifyng persona needs and grafifciations
durkehiem
anomic suicide
baumeister and leary
need to belong is a core need that ahs mutple and strong effects on emtional and cogntiive patterns
murphey gorden millen
saftey rose to the rop ater 911
peak experinces
moments person feels heavenly and there is a sence tha ttme ans space and been trancended
b values
maslow postulated that there are meta motives whech he refired to as b values failure to realzie and atttain these resutls result in meta pathalogieis or ilness of bieng human
ruth benndicit
concept of syndergy: a culture has high synergy peopel and system were focus on mutal reward of well bieng of soceity
carl rogers
ultimate goal was to beocme a fully functionign human
phenominal field
reflects the totality of our existance, related to percepetual concsou awareness
unconditional postive regard
is a postive roeiantion toward the self is epxeine indpenadntly of a persons ineteracitons with otuher peole
conditions of worth
represnt conditiosn that society puts on us that does nto resuts in unconditioanl postive regard
key of rogerain therapy
modify ideal self
actualizing tendency
everyone has internal organistic vlueing process
rogers and defence mechanisms
used when feedback doe snto jibe with self perceptions reduces anxiety
perfectionism cognitions inventory
cogntiive rumianhtion over msitakes and imperfectiosn (differance betwen acutal and ideal self)
Flett PLI
correlated strongly with depression .
assor
reproted that mothers who reproted tha tthey were epxoswed to conditiosn fo roth had lower level bieng and they themselves had more ocntrolign parentin sytle. same apprach in socialign their daughers.
usher
ceretain aspects not suitable for cross cutlural couselling
poyrazi
turkish did nto do well under this authortiarian goverment, recepie for confusion
markus and katakna
need for personal regrad does not expand to japan
ohtani and sakuria
translated the multi dimensioanl perfection scale high socialy presicved prefectionsims as asscoitd with depressioand hpeless in japamens studends
need
infleucnes our perceptions cogniations and actions and is most evidenct when there is recognizable defitrict between oru current state and state wehre we would liek to be
refractory period
when the need is sessntialy dormant and virutally no incentive iwll elicit
inducible period
when the need is inactive but is ready to respond to an exciting stimulus
active period
when the need is alsmost if not entirly deermin ongiong behv0oir
subsidizatin of needs
when other needs are recrutied to promtoe anouther need that is more pwoefull
subsidary need
the recruited need
determinant needs
the need that is more powerfull
ordination
the process of planninga dn implenting shceudles in order to recue conflict amougn two or more goals taht are seekign expression at the same time (egos job)
Difuse needs
global pervasive needs that operate across many settings
practive needs
stem form inside the person
reactive needs
triggered by enviromental presss
manifest needs
overt and reflected directly by behvoirs
latenent needs
more abstract adn are resptened in symbolic form
conscous needs
retrospective but immeidably availble on concouss awareness
unconscous needs
opposed to aperson soical or publci personality
viscentric
primary needs are as deinfed by murrey (phsiolgical needs)
Tafarodi et al 2004
japense studetns are less likely to at in a way that makes thems tand out. do not differ int the need for unqie ness but for the differances in the way to show it
EPPS
edwards persoanlity perference scale
Adjective checklist
gough ahd heilburn 300 adjectives, , needs and measures the degree to which a person has creative personality
Affiliation motivation
people with high afilaituion moivition produces tores on the tat relfecitn ghigh aprpach tendeicnes and low avoidance tendencies
socail comparison hypthesis festinger
when we are unsure of our opinions and attitudes or whether our perforamnce is good or bad we engage in soical comaprison to establish whether we are similar to other peopel or atypical in some respects
winter need for power
we need to have an impact on otherso or the world at large
effatance
need to have an impact on people places and objects
Schulthesise et al
undergradute students with higher power motive
reproted more
freqeunt sexual intercourse
and more drinkings
scheultthese
godfather verses briges in conty testernone verses progrestonre in people with high power motive




Emmons
personal strivigns idiographic goal directed untis that represnt what the person is typically or characterstiicly trying to do
Simmons et al
students with greater acheivement striving reproted fewer alcholol realted problems thatn stugends with fewer acheivment strviings reproted fewer alchol problems
two needs essentail for rogers
unconditional prostive regard
unconditional postive regrad
postive reard for the self regardless of enviromental feedback
goal of rogerain therapy
to modify conception fo self
what the fuck is acutalizing tendencies
every living thing will do its best/ organicistic (its natural biolgoical predispotion 2) its is active process which is why peopela re awlays explriting or intiaiting bhevoir 3) it is directional and poitned towards growth 4) it is selective (some capabilities are detected
when can a person become fully functioning
when needs for postive self regard and self acutalization are met
for rogers whend oes anxiety occur
when feedback does not jibe with a our interal self perceptions
what is the PCI measuring
cogntivie rumination over mistakesa and imperfections suppsed to measures difference between acutal self and deal self correlated with depression (
rogerian cleint centered therapy
uncodintontional psotive regard
reminds the person what they ahve learned
emphasis on ability to verbalize key issues and themse and experince these feeligns a they work toward a growth state

psychic secrtions
povlov decided to conduct controled expeiremnts of this pheonimon
flooding
extinction is at the root of clinical intervention tecnique called floooding. it is a behvoiral
differentiation
ocurrs when a organism learns to respond specifically to the exact cs adn deos nto respond to a highly similar tismulus
generalization
if a similiar stimuli is to a cs elciits the repsonce
Rescolas wagner
ucs is more effectivce in condiiton it is is suprising and unexpected
blocking effect
when a new unconditioned sitimulus is attached to the first ucs which si nwo ocnditioned it is blocked
experimental neurosis
pavlov - refers to the confusion that happens when two two conditioned responces are adapted by the same cues dog got angery or depressed, dog was dominated by inhibition or excitation
radical behvoiralsm john b watson
that only observable behvoris should be studies in psychology
radical enviromentalism
that enviroment has the biggest infleucne on our behoirs
Mowers two factor theroy
1) condtioned bad with phobia 2) operant conditioning of averting phobia and rewared
prepared learning
we are geneticaly prepared to fear some things
watsons view on personality
downplayd the posssiblity of consruction factors that contibute to subseuwnt life otuocmes for him a few key conditiong princples could explain alsmot any human behvoir he belevied that personality is meerly a endproduct of our habit systems and that we can view our habit systems by waching a persons activity streams
nest attachments
habit system devleoepd ear life that are not good
CC in humans Lumure nad quisey
conditioned sprots picktures wiht nude phhotos boners ensued
Eysnicks view on pusnihments and reionfrocemnt
postuated that there are important differences int he eases of conditioing speicicaly eysneck hyptoheized that inroverts relative to extroverts can be conditione dmore easily ad realidy
typologial postulate
tied these differance to introversion and extroverion adn clinical casses of hystirea and diathermia
gray
big differnace he suggested that their are differances between suceptility to reward and punsihemtn between exproverts and introvers
extroverts mroe syutiable for rewards
inrtoversts more suitable for punishemnts

carver and white
bis \"i think somthign unpleasant is giong to happen to me, tying intro version to punishemnt
Bas rewarard responcivess linked to willingness to appraoch outheres
and bas

shaping
entials priving reward in gridual sequence to repsonce that are succesive approximations
fixed ration schedule
like a slot machien, might hit 9 might hit 4 averging every five tiems reward
varaible interval
requries an average amount of time passed, but does nto reward at the same time period
fixed interval
reward eveyr five minutes
responce heirachy
introduce to aknowledge taht the saem cue for a paticualr person can have mutlipe rsponce asscited with it one being more dominant thatn the outher
william james
social me spiritual me and material me
james self esttem formulua
succcesses/pretentions
wj two ways to raise our self esteem
lower goals
incrase accomplishments
cooley high looking glass self
a sence of self depends on the reactns of other peopele, how ourhter peope treat us is liek looking in a mirror inorder to see oneself
self presenation
some people simply want to make sure that other people ahve an accurate sense of them
Meta accfuracy Kenny and de Paulo
refer to the extent people knwo hwo others see them (not very good)
Baldwin
introduced the concept that how a person vies himself or herself
lang root of psychosis
lang said the root of psychosis is the differance betweena cutala true self
felson symbolic interaction
our self appraisal
the acutal appraisl of other people
our perception fo other peosles apraisl

erik erikosn psycosocial stages intro
it provided a lifespan thoery streches form cradle to grave, postulted 8 different stages
each stage is a resltuon of a key task or challenge in order to movre to teh next stage to acheive a certaibn psycholgicl characitrisic
identiy cris
fialed serach for a sence of peronal idneity during adolsence and early adult hood
baumesiter
idenbity confict verses identity defiic t
Generativity in older people
generativity veres stagnation is associed with middle adult hood, generativity is the willingness to engage ina cts to promote the well being of younger geneartions in order to promote the longe term surival of speiceis
parest teachers mentors and community activists
parents teachers mentors and community activis are g ood candititadtes for gentivity

adminst abun
argued that generativity is mtoived by two eky soruces 1) inner desire
2) cultural demand
westermayer
greater health in genativity people blaah
marcias level of ego identity status
identiy acheivment
forclsoure
moratorum
idenity diffusion


identiy acheivment
predicted by low nerutocism and high concousness and extroversion
moratoruim
state of suspension frustration can make up thier mind dont knwo what thier goals are status is simply maintianed
foreclosure
has a clear expression of commitemnt but has not expressed an identiy crisis yet, assoctied with idealization of family
identity diffusion
distancing yourself from your parents insecure forms of attachemnt
self verification thoery
suggestss that people strive to attain a sence of self inroder to mainitan some continuity and foster predictability and control (cognative dissoance)
self improvment HENE
drawn attention to this mtoive by detail high self critical nature of people from japan.
Goffaman Self presentation
liked the act of self presentation to begin in a theatrical performance with peiopela cting as performs. He argues performaers often present an ideali elf as a form of impression manamgent called a front
festinger

soical comparison occurs when peopel are uncertain perhaps becuase they ahve recevie some ambiguous feedback they compare themselves to other people we seek peopel who are simialr to us in many categories and compare ourselves becuase thsi produves with the msot releveant information
if self enhancemnts is the goal
they compare themseves to somonje who usualy is worse than it is rsiky becuase if they perform better than you feel like shit
gergen mr cleen verses mr dirty
students with mr clean expedite a drop in their self eseteem but exposure to mr dirty led to a sharp increase in sself esteem , social comparison
self relevance effect
Wagner cohen
is that a word is more quickly remembered in subsequent memory recognition ask if the partipcant and indicated that yes the word did describe them
ian mcgregor = compensatory conditioning
ahve described to aphenomena they call comensatory condtion that is presumably linked wwith the mtoives for peopel to have self consistency
showed that being made to fell ucnertain about a personal realtionship resutled in more extrme views about a social view
spontaneous self concept
mcguire and padwing scale
mquire distinctiveness hypthesis
mcguire suggested tha tpeopel with a unique facotr, are disaprtly more likley to mention this characterisic when they are describin themslves this is due in par to the fact that the people are more lilley to descibe themslves in a way that distinguishes one selves
markus nuruis
suggested that possible self is a mental representation fo waht we coudl ibe in the future it is a powerful motivaing force peopel with desirable possible sef will be motitiave to perform behvoria dn conduct themselves in a manner that will help acheive this goal differenc between possible and feared self
Self discrpenacy theory by Tory higgins
the acutal self, ideal self and ought self
differance sbetween acutal and ideal preicted depression predicted depression
differences between acutal and ideal

robins et al
self esteem high in children dropped in youth high in adutls and then low again in seniors
uzbek
men have higher self esteem than woman obtained gender difference was higher for peopel wiht low socioeconomic status
cambell culture of self worth model
cultures are becoming creasinly indivudalistic
morris rosenburg
focus on self esteem as a global measure of genral self worth
paridoxical self esteem
extremely critical perfectionists are peopel who may suffer form pardixical self esteem thay may feel very capable and sene that they can atttain perfection but this doesnt mean they oike thesmelves
Name the letter method
people to rate how much they like each letter in the alphabet their intials rate them determien self esttem
rosenberg self esteem scale
participants were requried to click on self releant words and then either smiling or forwing nuetral face , when self relevant words were paired with ahppy face high levels of implciit self esttem were detereceed.
Elliot
low mattering associtionw ith low self esttem asspocited wth deprssion asocitd with suicide idelation
luthanen and crocker
collective self private collective self esttem, public collective self esttem member sheip self esttem
coopersmith self esteem inventory
power signifance viritue and competence
peirs harris self concept scales
measures intellecutal and school status and phsyical appearance and attributes more generaly about self concept thatn about self estteem
duval and whichlund locus of attention
will detemrine ones locus of cuasal attribution
trapwell and campbel
self absorbtion paradox, self foused attention can be good at times, can be highly maladaptive if runnation is inovled
trapnella nd cambil
rumination reflection question measures self concept and self focus
self mointoring scale my snyder
extroversion factor, other directedness factor
briggs and check
extroverion factor associted with good eprsonal adjustment but the outer directeness factor was assoteid with poor adjustment and lower self confidience
self handicaping
is any action or chocie of perfoamnce setting that enahcnes the opprotunity to externaize failure and internalize success, so that fialure is seen fo reflect factors outside the self but successes relfect direclty onto the self
leavy and shepereded
argued that there are two distict forms of
behvoiral and self reproted
bergas and jones
suggested that self handicaping reflects a uncertain self rather than a negative self
rodwalt
studied handicppaing in swimmers
banduras soical learning theory
1) attention
2) retention
3) reproduction
4) motivation


hene self imrovement
drawn attention to th emtovie by detail highly self critical nature of peopel from japan
self enhancment
imrpove moods and emtions related to self
self improvment
is improving the self
self relevance effect wagner and cohen
is that a word is more quickly remembered in subsquent memory recognition task if the particapnt and indicated yes that the person did describe them (onlyu in indivudalistic utlrues)
linville
has argued that some people organize self knowalge into a few main cateogires involving the self, while other peopel organize self knowedge into several maincategoreis thata re preaosnly meaningfulla nd highly salinet, she gugested that the degree ofs elf compelxity is an improtant buffer against stress and threat in terms of vulnerability
people with low self compelxity tend to put all their cognative eggs in one basket
self concept clarity
refers to teh degree of certianty and lack of ambiguity that people have regarding themselves
jennifer cambel
across a seirs of studies she establisehd that people who have less self ocnept clarity have lower self esteem
self esttem
it is a sense of regard we have for ourselves, peopel with low self esteem, having exceeding negative views on themslves typicall peopel have a need to maintina a postive view
jennifer cambells cultural self worth model
north america is beocming increasinly acceptable to adpot a indivudalist stance adn attemtp to promtoe self worth of each child, not all its cracked up to be
Morris rosenberg and self liking
focus on self esteem as a global measure of general self worth
self liking verse self competence
selk liking invovles perceive a sence of social worth while postive or negative evaltions of the self and realted feelings of self worth internalized social standards of approatiatness
self compteence: is similar to bandurs concept of self effiacy
paridoxical self esttem
high compitance but dont like eachotuher
implicit associaitons test
this is a reaction time measure that invovles sorting wrods into categoreis across theroeis and traisl the catoerigse incldue self worth wrods psotive and negative wrods, during certian segemtns of the task peopel respnd quick to the word they are associted with
rosenberg self esttem scale
particapnts were requried to click on self relevant wrods and there was either a simialr or fronwing face they could clkick on
rosenberg mattering
is one concept perived mattering is a sence of feeling signifigant to others espeicaly those who are close to you
mattering is a indivudal feeling ath he or she coudsn, potent predictor of welling bieng

elltion low mattering associted with suicide idelation


luthanen and crocker

4 factors

private collective, membership public collective and imprantce idneoty
blanton and crocker
given a fake iq give reutls of perofmance self esteem varied adn social appearnce did not shows taht that re multiple factes of self esttem .
Duval and whichlund
prosped that ones locus of attention. if a person has focused attention on inward self though and perosnal feelign asked to make attribution she will impliat ehte self in contras if a perosnt end to focus his or hr attention onf acotr in the nvirometn the subsequnt attibiton ocuses on extrnal cues outside the self
self monitoring
snyader fist introduced the topic high self montiros are like camelosn, execpent at readng situation prompts and interperosn cues and moulding as haping their behvoir in accordince with thsoe cuses
self montiroing scale developed by snyder
professional stage actors hav ehigh score on smsm
briggs and cheeck self mintoring
extroverionf actor associted with good personal adjsutment, outerdirecness facot associted with bad personall
leavvy and shepered
two distict forms of self handicappign behvoiral and self reproted
bergas adn jones
suggested that self handicapping relfects a prevosu competnece complex that is due to ahving a very uncetians elf rahter than sijmply low self sestem, peopel with unceritan self estteem need to construt reassuran cena evidenc eo wrothenss
zuckerman sensory deprivation tow factors
cognative appraisal
introvet or extrover, (underaroused keeps them giong
lazarus adn folman
primary appraisla verse secnday appraisl
post traumatic growth inventory by tedeschi and calhoun
asses the perceived personal grwoth using five subscales new possiblties realted ot outerhs personal stregnth application of prolfiic spriautal change. has to do with seconardy appraisla optimists verse pessimsits

ie argmstrong engaged in cognative refrmaing

Zeidner and ahmmer
examiend how israli coped with scud missle attacks, emtion focused copign was associted with greater anxiety and physical symtpms
constituional risk factor model by zuckerman
model based on the premise that perosnality is a indpendant risk factor for health, zuckeramn attrubated ifference in sensation seeking and health it is important beucase it underscores the need to ocnsider the biologicla roots of that serve as constituional risk factors.
ilness behvoir model
based on the premise that perosnality is lionked through its assocition with adpative or maladaptive halth realized action. high concousness more exersize, neurcoticsm more smoking
stes moderation medation model
according to the stress moediation model personality can play a role by mediatoing or moderating hte imapct of stree.
Stress generation model
certain people find ways ot make things more stressfull for themselves
problems with self report measures.
disability hypothesis: is that all illness leads to high level of negative affect
sympertom perception hypothesis: is that neuroticsm and negative effect are accompanied by greater effectiveness to somatic cues and it is greater effecivness that accoutns for the link between neruocism and physical sy mpotms.
Naive realism
to describe the mistaken beleif the self reports are an accuate relection of objectivity determiend health sattus
limits of cross sectional research
many persoanlity studies are corss ectional investiagions many perosnality and health studies also asses particapnts at one point in time, not possible to claim that perosnality claimed a causal role
tice and buamesiter
procastiantion showed less stress at teh beggining of the term and more stress at the end of the term, limtis of cross secitonal research
defensive pessimensm
people who motivate themeslve by making themslves feel acnous about possible out0ocmes
defensive pessism cantor and norman
adaptive early in uni
but by 3 or 4th year people wore themselves out
attributes of type A personality
strong competive drive
an intense desire to meet goal that are somtimes ambiguous and poorly defined
speend and impaitnece espcialy with respect to deadlines
persistent vigorous physical and mental acitivty
high level of mental and physical alterness



uncontrallability model
type a is an attempt to gain control of enviroment
self evaluation model matthews
high diffuse standards, increased percepiton between acutal and desired state
price social learning theory
1) scare resrouces
2) no unverisaly apilical moreal code
3) constant need to prove yourself to somone

roskies
foudn that progams that meant to curbe type a behviour might jsut hav eadded social sport, rthaer than acutaly stopping type a
key points on type A
type a sytle is an intense and competitivea acheivment oriented approach. type a people liek things quick and can be quite comptive although type has many feautres the hostily component is asocited with heart attacks
self evlation model of type a behvoir attriubtes behoboir to the prersuit of excpational high diffuse standa sn several elevated levels of self ocncsou and self awareness
key elements of type C personality
incrased tendency to expenditure stress an inability or unwillingess to express emtion, helplessness hoplness inclduing a hstory of early loss of parentall clsoeness
solano temshock
have found evdience that the presence of type c perosnality predicts faters HIV progression
type D personality
jonothan denolet refers to distresssed personality ti consits of two compontents negative affectrivty and social inhbition
type D refers to teh distersssed presonaliy, fewer affilative ties with outhers and a greater fear of starngers. type d consider a risk factor associted with cornoray heart disease.
negative affecitiy



two parts of type D and the NEOPIR
negative affectivity: high neurocistsm lower concousness agreeabless and extroverion
social inhibition,low extrverion high neurocitsim
the hardy personality
protective resiliency factor that is in keeping with emphasis in positive psychology first described by Kobasa
three things associted wth hearty personality
a sence of contorl
commitment
and challenge
if these things are present less likely to get sick more likel to resileint to stress


typoe H control
interal locus of contorl
type H challenge
recognize that obstaicles will arise and changes will occur when these people confront them head on
type H commitment
when peopel are highly invovled have a sence of purpose and meeningfulness
dewalt and zone hearty
people with high veres low hardiness, non hardy evaluated a greater portion of thir lives as undesraible
haryness factors key points
it is a resilience factor
three c\'s
hardiness is a buffer between stress and illness
hardiness traing reusling in increased self occurance and low level asnxiety (Maadi)


booth kewely
concousness was linekd wtth wellness
cheerfull people more likely to engage in risky behoirs
niaive opotmism associted with
higher levels of extroverion adn lower leves of neurocistsm
Schwartzberg differant optomisms
functional optomism: refers to the benefits of opotmism when threat is acutaly experinced, defesnive refers to potmism bias that seems to cahracterize the majority fo people
LOT measures funcntional optomism
Lot scores
tets dispotional opitnm
Walsoton and Evils
suggested that their are domains speicic beleifs about locus of control interm of health outocmes

resaerch has indicatd that there is a signifaint asscition between

health locus of control
to some extent an internal locus of control with respoct ot health issues is very simialr to self effiacy adn sen eof opotimism
wallinsons god locus of control
its all on god, god locus of control scale not good, asspcited with poorer health outomces
murreys thoughts and frueds
id reflected needs
ego is concously associted with aims and goals
super igo is a culturalized product of internalized expecations

alpha press
the acutal situaton as it objectivly exsitss
beta press
an indivudlas perception of appraisl of the situation
thema
refers to the combination of press and personality that combines to produce regularies in bhevoir
need set
people who have unsatified need enter a need set sucha that thier readiness to respond in a way to satisfy a need
inductible period
need can be evoked through stimulus
concerns with the TAT
low test retest relaiblity

object relations theory
stems from teh psychanality perspective objects realtions empahsizes how people come to view realtionships with outher peopel and encompass thigns such as our interpersonal wishes and our emtional repsonce to other people
westin and object realtions theory
demonstrated people with borderlien perosnality disorder typically have very unstable and chaning interpersonal realtionships. unusaly interpeson content predicts bordlineine perosnality
factors that came out of the PRF
1) aesthetic intelectual factors
2) dependance verses autonomy
3) oreination towards work verses play
4) outgiong social leadership


mccleland and freidman
explored the realtion between child training praictice and acheivment mtoivation in native american culture asses the coding of achievment imagery in folk tales.
winter more ...
has been particualy intersted in the levels of the need for power and the need for acheivment dispalyed in americna presents high need fo acheivment does is not associtd with succes with presidens beucase events are uncontrolable, need for power however does becasue it is associted with desirable characteristics such as persuation and carisma
Ogive et all
developed a personal project taxomon that entiasl calssifying each proejct accoring to 4 motives 1) aqurie @) cure 3) overcome 4) prevent 5 keep.
organistic theoris
which focus on the devleopment of hte entire organism
self acutalization
is the continous and unrelenting striving to evenvope ones full peotnaial it relfects desire for both self improvment and self compeltion
personal responciblity
although we may deny it, we are ultimatly responcible for waht happens to us
deficny motives and grwoth motives
Maslow beleived that neurosis was a deficny diesease, a neruotic indivudal somtign is abcent
neorosis
is a lack of personal growth and neurictice needs represnt a loss of capaicty or capability
general characteristics of needs
maslow propsoed a unversially applicapal heriachy of needs consiting of five types arrainge by their relevanece to surivival
durkheim anomnic suiicde
associted with thrid level love and belonging needs
flett and perfectionism
striving for prefectionsim is associted negativly with self acutualziation
maslow and perosnality
a person is comped of many perosnality sydorms and acts that relct a integraerd perosnality is the key to psycholgical helath, personality syndromes are not isolated system but exits within teh situation and culturual contexts
hyde
similiarites hypothesis; by exmainig found males and femailes imialr in most psycoglical varibles
acutalizing tendency
organismic, acitive, direcitonal and growth roeitned, selective
dibartollo
two meaurs of self wroth need to feel busy or active all the time inroder to be succesfull and success based self worth
hovwarth evaltional of cleint centered therapy
patiens cognative appraisla more important than therpasits acutal actions
personal oreination inventory
dy shorstrom differance betwee inner directed adn outehr directed people
short index of self acutalizaton by crandal and jones
concerns for factorial validity
wolopose
flooding expoure htearpy for anxiety disorders and phobias
skinners views on perosnaliyt
joint focus of genetic factors that have evolved to maximize the chances of surivala as well as the indivudals unqiue history of rienforcment
skinners views on culture
overarchign effect of culture is that cultures in shaping and maintaining operant behvoris
teh fact that culture sruvie resutls form operant conditioning
a culture tha tindicatees it smembers behave in teh most efective way will have the strongest culture
conflict ensues between countries because they have developed different shceudles of reinfrocemnt and punishment


malateta Magai
parents socialize emtions by

reward
pusnihemnt
override
neglect




bandura
argued that the basic conepts of radical behvoiralism are inadequte to explain teh complex human behvoirs. trail and error learning is too slow to epxlain teha aqcuiston of ocmpelx human behvoirs

sex role devlopment bandura
process of aquring the affecive cognantive motivational and behvoiral attributes that are derinfed cultural approatpoe for ones defiend biolgical sex
perry busy
children are liklely to imitaite theri same sex parents only if they bleive that is an accuate represntion of how people in taht gender should behvabe
recpirocal determinsim
he beleives that the constant itneractions of persona charactersies behoirs and the envokrment

tv show speading csi mamia

leanord eron
provides an overview of the probam on devlopment of agression agreesion relects a confleunt of mutiple learning proceses and infelucnes cognatiie factors play a virutally imporatnt role
substianlly changes overtime in predctors of agressionw eh agresi and realted outocmes subsitaal long term staibliy of agressive behvoir when peopel studies ncaidece contineud into aduslt hoodl
the social me
an indivudals awarenss of her or her idenity int he eyes of outehr
the spirtiual me
our awareness of our mental state
materia me:
the material possession of the body adn teh context that links oneself to ones body
cooley
the looking glass self a sense of self depends on the reacitons of othe rpeople and whatching how they treat and interact with u
our perception of how othe rpeopel reagard us and view us is called relfected appraisl relfected appraisl amy differ from our self appral
the divided self by lang
lang suggested that the root of psychiss is in schizoprenai is the disparity between patiens presnted fast self and his or her true self
felson symbolic interactions approach 3 components
1) our self apprasal
2) our acutal apprasal of outher people
3) our perception of outher peopesl apprasl(relfected apprasal)

eriksons stages
trust veres mistrust
autonomy verses shame
intiave verses guilt
industry verses inderioity
idenity veres role confusion
intimiacy versus isolation
generativity versus stagnation
ego integrity versus depsair.






husain and langer
self esteem tend to rise if a perosn recives prasie but the pstoiovde impact of the praise ons self esttem is blunted amoung peopel who know they are pretneding or playing a role
gergen
found taht studnets with mrclean showed a drop in self esttema dn mr dirtly let to a increase in self estteem
struaman
although speicicaly self discrpencies to anxiety and depressio have not been supported by empriacal research the role of self descrpencs ien health problems in general hase
rosenberg on mattering
mattering is one concpet percived matttering is a sence of feelign sigiance to outehrs espcialy those who are clseo to you
sucidide idelation is asocited with not mateering
domains of self concept
we all have differant domains of self worht broken up into categories
differant doamisn ahve been imperaicly dsiingusihed such as achedmic self setesm adn social self esttem adn atheltic self estteem
self esttem as a multi domain construct
it is important to distinguish between taigt self esttem adn state self esttem
blanton crocker
give a fake iq give resutls peofmrance self esttem varied but socaila nd appearnce did no t
Feinseitns self concousnes scale
provides meaures of private self ocncous public self ocnsou adn socail anxiety, private self concsou invovles focusing on thoughs and relfectiont aht dela with the self
chang
showed the optimists and pessimists diffred in their second appraisal of coping responces but not in thier primary appraisals of threat verses challenge. optimists were high in adaptive copign styels such as congitive restucing and they were lower in maladaptive styles such as engaging in which full thinking and soical withdrawal
standton
when the stiaution is uncontrolalble problem focused ocpign is not adpative it is better to express ones emtions as a tension relase
norman endler and james parker
coping inventory for stressfull situations
in thsi model these table ocping styels interact with stuational stress and ocngative prpaisl of the stressfull stuation to detemrien wehter there is an adpative or maladaptive respocne and intensity of htis reponce
watson and hubbard
neurcotism was associted with emtional focuses cales, both traight concosusness and extroversion were linked to problem oreitned coping styles
coping styles and personality tests
apparentl degree of staigblity over time seems to vary accoring to the copign style measured.
dolan whtie
greater coping consientcy was associted with greater copign effectivness
theoritical models of health and perosnality miller 2004
accoring to his model perosnality ahd ehath are best regareded as general frameorks that tie toghter in genral rathe than speicfiic

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