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Glossary of 1st aid neurology and psychiatry neuropathology

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Motor aphasia: area of lesion
Broca's area
sensory aphasia: area of lesion
Wernicke's
conduction aphasia: area of lesion
arcuate fasciculus
kluver-bucy syndrome: area of lesion
amygdala (bilateral)
personality changes, reemergence of primitive reflexes: area of lesion
frontal lobe
spatial neglect syndrome: area of lesion
right prietal lobe
coma: area of lesion
reticular activating system
wernicke-korsakoff syndrome: area of lesion
mamillary bodies (bilateral)
resting tremor, chorea, athetosis: area of lesion
basal ganglia
intention tremor, limb ataxia: area of lesion
cerebellar hemisphere
truncal ataxia, dysarthria: area of lesion
cerebellar vermis
hemiballismus: area of lesion
contralateral subthalmic nucleus
neural tube defects: associated nutritional deficiency
folate
neural tube defects: lab findings
elevated alpha feto protein in amniotic fluid and maternal serum
failure of bony spinal canal to close; no structural herniation: disease
spina bifida occulta
failure of bony spinal canal to close, meninges herniate: disease
meningocele
failure of bony spinal canal to close, meninges and spinal cord herniate: disease
meningomyelocele
chorea: area of lesion
basal ganglia
chorea: define
sudden, jerky, purposeless movements
athetosis: area of lesion
basal ganglia
athetosis: define
slow, writhing movements, especially of fingers
athetosis: etymology
not fixed (greek)
hemiballismus: pathological mechanism
lost inhibition of thalamus thru globus pallidus (via loss of subthalamic nuc.)
most common cause of dementia in the elderly: ?
Alzheimer's
2nd most common cause of dementia in the elderly: ?
multi-infarct dementia
Alzheimer's: degenerative or demylinating
degenerative
Alzheimer's: extracellular pathology
senile plaque (beta amyloid core)
Alzheimer's: intracellular pathology
neurofibrillary tangles (abnormally phosphorylated tau protein)
Familial alzhemer's: degenerative or demylinating
degenerative
Familial alzhemer's: abberent genes
APOE4 allele, p-App gene
Familial alzhemer's: frequency
0.1
Pick's disease: degenerative or demylinating
degenerative
Pick's disease: lobes affected
frontal and temporal
Pick's disease: sx
dementia, aphasia, parkinsonian
Pick's disease: intracellular pathology
pick bodies--aggregated tau protein
Huntington's disease: degenerative or demylinating
degenerative
Huntington's disease: affected chromosome and genetic defect
chrom 4, expansian of CAG repeates; CAG = Caudate loses Ach and Gaba
Huntington's disease: Inheritance
autosomal dominant
Huntington's disease: sx
chorea, dementia
Huntington's disease: area of lesion
caudate nucleus (loss of GABAergic neurons)
Parkinson's disease: degenerative or demylinating
degenerative
Parkinson's disease: associated street drug contaminant
MPTP
Parkinson's disease: Microscopic findings
lewy bodies, depigmentation of substantia nigra pars compacta (loss of dopanergic neurons)
Parkinson's disease: sx
Tremor (rest), cogwheel Rigidity, Akinesia, Postural instability (TRAPped in your body)
Parkinson's disease: area of lesion
substantia nigra pars compacta
Spinocerebellar degenerative diseases: ?
olivopontocerebellar atrophy; friegreich's ataxia
Spinocerebellar degenerative diseases: degenerative or demylinating
degenerative
ALS: degenerative or demylinating
degenerative
ALS: sx
upper and lower motor neuron signs, no sensory deficit
Lou Gehrig's disease: ?
ALS
Lou Gehrig's disease: degenerative or demylinating
degenerative
Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: degenerative or demylinating
degenerative
Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: median age of death
7 yrs
Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: presentation
presentation at brith as "floppy baby", tongue fasciculations
Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: Inheritance
autosoma recessive
Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: area of lesion
anterior horns
Polio: Spanish
la poliomielitis
Polio: French
la poliomyélite
Polio: Arabic
شَلَلُ الأَطْفال
Polio: Chinese
脊髓灰质炎[---質-] jǐsuǐ huīzhìyán
Polio: degenerative or demylinating
degenerative
Polio: sx
LMN signs
Polio: area of lesion
anterior horns
Poliovirus: Virus recoverd from
stool or throat
Poliovirus: CSF findings
lymphatic pleocytosis with slight elevated protein
Poliovirus: route of spreading in patient
bloodstream to CNS
Poliovirus: replication site
orofpharynx and small intestine
Poliovirus: transmission
fecal-oral
Multiple Sclerosis: viral associations
JC virus, seen in 2-4% AIDS patients
Multiple Sclerosis: disease course
relapse and remitting
Multiple Sclerosis: geographic distribution
increased prevalence with increased distance from equator
Multiple Sclerosis: cell type affected
oligodendrocytes
Multiple Sclerosis: pathological findings
periventricular plaques (areas of oligodendrocyte loss and reactive gliosis) with preservation of axons
Multiple Sclerosis: degenerative or demylinating
demylinating
Multiple Sclerosis: CSF findings
increased protein (IgG) in CSF
Multiple Sclerosis: presentation
may present with optic neuritis, MLF syndrome, hemiparesis, hemisensory sx, or bladder/bowel incontinence
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML): degenerative or demylinating
demylinating
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: degenerative or demylinating
demylinating
Metachromatic leukodystrophy: degenerative or demylinating
demylinating
Guillain Barre: Tx
respiratory support, plasmapheresis, IV immune globulins
Guillain Barre: findings
elevated CSF protein w/ normal cell count, papilledema
Guillain Barre: pathology
inflammation and demylination of peripheral nerves and motor fibers of ventral roots (motor > sensory)
Guillain Barre: viral associations
herpesvirus, campylobacterjejuni, also inoculations
Guillain Barre: disease course
acute onset almost all survive, majority complete recovery after weeks/months
Guillain Barre: degenerative or demylinating
demylinating
Guillain Barre: sx
ascending muscle weakness begnining in distal lower extremities, may include autonomic dysfunction
consciousness intact, motor, sensory, autonomic, psychic sx. 1 area of brain: generalized or partial
partial
consciousness intact, motor, sensory, autonomic, psychic sx. 1 area of brain: seizure type
simple partial
impaired consciousness, affects 1 area of brain: generalized or partial
partial
impaired consciousness, affects 1 area of brain: seizure type
complex partial
blank stare: generalized or partial
generalized
blank stare: seizure type
absence (generalized)
quick repetitive jerks: generalized or partial
generalized
quick repetitive jerks: seizure type
myoclonic (generalized)
alternating stiffening and movement: generalized or partial
generalized
alternating stiffening and movement: seizure type
tonic clonic (grand mal, generalized))
stiffening: generalized or partial
generalized
stiffening: seizure type
tonic (generalized)
drop seizure: generalized or partial
generalized
drop seizure: seizure type
atonic (generalized)
epidural hematoma: pathogenesis
rupture of middle meningeal artery
epidural hematoma: CT apearance
biconvex disk not crossing suture lines
epidural hematoma: sx
lucid interval, then problemas
subdural hematoma: pathogenesis
rupture of bridging veins
subdural hematoma: CT apearance
crescent shaped hemorrhage crosses suture lines
subarachnoid hemorrhage: pathogenesis
rupture of aneurysm
subarachnoid hemorrhage: sx
worst headache of my life
parenchymal hematoma: pathogenesis
caused by hypertension, amyloid angiopathy, diabetes mellitus, tumor
Berry aneurysm: associated diseases
adult polycystic kidney, ehlers danlos, marfans
Berry aneurysm: most common location
bifurcation of anterior communicating artery, also common at other bifurcations in circle of Willis
glioblastoma multiforme: pathological appearance
pseudopalisading tumor cells. Stain with GFAP. Central necrosis and hemorrhage
glioblastoma multiforme: emerges from what cell type
astrocytes (grade IV astrocytoma)
glioblastoma multiforme: infra or supratentorial
supratentorial
glioblastoma multiforme: region of brain
cerebral hemispheres, can cross corpus callosum (butterfly glioma)
glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis/resectability
shitty, dead w/in a year
glioblastoma multiforme: frequency rank among primary brain tumors
1st
glioblastoma multiforme: adults or kids
adults
menigioma: pathological appearance
spindle cells concentrically arranged in whorled pattern. Psammoma bodies
menigioma: emerges from what cell type
arachnoid cells
menigioma: infra or supratentorial
supratentorial
menigioma: region of brain
convexities of hemispheres and parasagittal region
menigioma: prognosis/resectability
resectable
menigioma: frequency rank among primary brain tumors
2nd
menigioma: adults or kids
adults
schwannoma: associations
bilateral schwannoma found in neurofibromatosis type 2
schwannoma: emerges from what cell type
schwann cells
schwannoma: infra or supratentorial
infratentorial
schwannoma: region of brain
often localized to 8th nerve (acoustic schwannoma)
schwannoma: prognosis/resectability
resectable
schwannoma: frequency rank among primary brain tumors
3rd
schwannoma: adults or kids
adults
oligodendroglioma: pathological appearance
fried egg cells round nuclei with clear cytoplasm. Often calcified
oligodendroglioma: emerges from what cell type
oligodendrocytes
oligodendroglioma: infra or supratentorial
supratentorial
oligodendroglioma: region of brain
frontal lobes
oligodendroglioma: adults or kids
adults
pituitary adenoma: secretions
most common is prolactin secreting
pituitary adenoma: emerges from what cell type
rathke's pouch
pituitary adenoma: infra or supratentorial
supratentorial
pituitary adenoma: adults or kids
adults
pilocytic (low grade) astrocytoma: pathological appearance
rosenthal fibers--eosinophilic corkscrew fibers
pilocytic (low grade) astrocytoma: infra or supratentorial
supratentorial
pilocytic (low grade) astrocytoma: region of brain
usually posterior fossa
pilocytic (low grade) astrocytoma: prognosis/resectability
benign, good prognosis
pilocytic (low grade) astrocytoma: adults or kids
kids
medulloblastoma: pathological appearance
rosettes or perivascular pseudorosette pattern. Radiosensitive
medulloblastoma: emerges from what cell type
primitive neuroectodermal tumor
medulloblastoma: infra or supratentorial
infratentorial
medulloblastoma: prognosis/resectability
stupid malignant
medulloblastoma: adults or kids
kids
ependymoma: pathological appearance
perivascular pseudorosettes. Rod shaped blepharaoplasts (basal ciliary bodies) near nucleus
ependymoma: infra or supratentorial
infratentorial
ependymoma: region of brain
4th ventricle
ependymoma: prognosis/resectability
bad, bad, bad
ependymoma: adults or kids
kids
hemiangioblastoma: associations
von Hippel Lindau syndrome when found with retinal angiomas
hemiangioblastoma: pathological appearance
foamy cells and high vascularity
hemiangioblastoma: secretions
can produce EPO -> 2ary polycythemia
hemiangioblastoma: emerges from what cell type
remnants of rathke's pouch
hemiangioblastoma: infra or supratentorial
infratentorial
hemiangioblastoma: region of brain
cerebellar
hemiangioblastoma: adults or kids
kids
craniopharyngioma: infra or supratentorial
supratentorial
craniopharyngioma: frequency rank among primary brain tumors
most common childhood supratentorial tumor
craniopharyngioma: adults or kids
kids
weakness: UMN
+
weakness: LMN
+
atrophy: UMN
-
atrophy: LMN
+
fasciculation: UMN
-
fasciculation: LMN
+
reflexes: UMN
up
reflexes: LMN
down
tone: UMN
up
tone: LMN
down
babinski: UMN
+
babinski: LMN
-
poliomyelitis: spinal cord lesions
anterior horns
poliomyelitis: UMN
-
poliomyelitis: LMN
+
poliomyelitis: sx
flaccid paralysis
Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: spinal cord lesions
anterior horns
Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: UMN
-
Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: LMN
+
Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: sx
flaccid paralysis
Multiple Sclerosis: spinal cord lesions
white matter in cervical region, random and assymetric
Multiple Sclerosis: sx
scanning speech, intention tremor, nystagmus
ALS: spinal cord lesions
corticospinal tract and anterior horns
ALS: UMN
+
ALS: LMN
+
Occlusion of ventral artery: spinal cord lesions
everything except dorsal columns and tract of lissauer
Tabes dorsalis: spinal cord lesions
dorsal roots and dorsal columns
Tabes dorsalis: sx
impaired proprioception and locomotor ataxia
syringomeyelia: spinal cord lesions
crossing fibers of spinothalic tract
syringomeyelia: sx
bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation
Vitamin B12 neuropathy: spinal cord lesions
demyelination of dorsal columns, lateral corticospinal tracts, and spinocerebellar tracts
Vitamin B12 neuropathy: UMN
+
Vitamin B12 neuropathy: LMN
-
Vitamin B12 neuropathy: sx
ataxic gait, hyperreflexia, impaired position and vibration sense
Friedreich's ataxia: spinal cord lesions
demyelination of dorsal columns, lateral corticospinal tracts, and spinocerebellar tracts
Friedreich's ataxia: UMN
+
Friedreich's ataxia: LMN
-
Friedreich's ataxia: sx
ataxic gait, hyperreflexia, impaired position and vibration sense
tabes dorsalis: phys exam findings
argyll robertson pupils, absent DTR (wtf)
tabes dorsalis: associations
charcot's joints
Brown sequard syndrome: Ipsilateral signs below lesion
UMN and vibro/proprio/tactile sensation loss
Brown sequard syndrome: contralateral signs below lesion
pain and temp loss
Brown sequard syndrome: ipsilateral signs at level of lesion
LMN, loss of all sensation
Brown sequard syndrome: spinal cord lesions
hemisection
Horner's syndrome: spinal cord lesions
can happen w/ spinal lesion above T1
Horner's syndrome: sx
ptosis, anhidrosis, miosis
oculosympathetic pathway: 1st neuron
hypothalamus to IML
oculosympathetic pathway: 2nd neuron
IML (T1ish) to superior cervical ganglion
oculosympathetic pathway: 3rd neuron
superior cervical ganglion to pupil (and sweat glands and smooth muscle of eyelids)
Radial nerve: injury which can damage nerve
shaft of humerus break
Radial nerve: lost reflexes with injury
triceps and brachioradialis
Radial nerve: motion deficit from injury
wrist drop, triceps and brachioradialis paralysis
Radial nerve: movements at wrist
extension
Radial nerve: movements at elbow
extension, supination
Radial nerve: thumb movements
extension
Radial nerve: cutaneous innervation
posterior brachial cutaneous, posterior antebrachial cutaneous
Radial nerve: passes thru what muscle
supinator
Radial nerve: evidence of injury on inspection
wrist drop
Median nerve: injury which can damage nerve
medial supracondyle of humerus break
Median nerve: motion deficit from injury
weak forearm pronation, wrist flexion, finger flexion, tumb movements
Median nerve: movements at wrist
flexion
Median nerve: movements at elbow
pronation
Median nerve: thumb movements
opposition, flexion (superficial head), abduction
Median nerve: cutaneous innervation
lateral palm and thumb, radial 2 1/2 fingers
Median nerve: passes thru what muscle
pronator teres
Median nerve: evidence of injury on inspection
thenar atrophy
Ulnar nerve: injury which can damage nerve
medial epicondyle break
Ulnar nerve: motion deficit from injury
weak wrist flexion and adduction, impaired adduction of thumb and ulnar 2 fingers
Ulnar nerve: thumb movements
flexion (deep head)
Ulnar nerve: cutaneous innervation
medial palm and ulnar 1 1/2 fingers
Ulnar nerve: passes thru what muscle
flexor carpi ulnaris
Ulnar nerve: evidence of injury on inspection
claw hand
Axillary nerve: injury which can damage nerve
surgical neck of humerus break or anterior shoulder dislocation
Axillary nerve: motion deficit from injury
loss of deltoid action
musculocutaneous: lost reflexes with injury
biceps reflex
musculocutaneous: motion deficit from injury
arm flexion and pronation weak
musculocutaneous: movements at wrist
none
musculocutaneous: movements at elbow
pronation
musculocutaneous: passes thru what muscle
coracobrachialis
Erb Duchenne palsy: structures damaged, mechanism
C5 C6; blow to shoulder, trauma during delivery
Erb Duchenne palsy: evidence of injury on inspection
waiter's tip--limb hang's by side, medially rotated and pronated forearm
Common Peroneal: Nerve Roots
L4-S2
Common Peroneal: motion deficit from injury
foot dropPED (peroneal everts & dorsiflexes)

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