Glossary of 19th Century American History - Part 2
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- Define "abolish"
- What four groups/people were mostly involved in the abolition movement?
- 1. American Colonization Society
2. William Lloyd Garrison
3. Harriet Beecher Stowe
4. Fredrick Douglass
- Who founded the American Colonization Society?
- Robert Finley
- What were the values of the two groups in the American Colonization Society?
- 1. One was opposed to slavery
2. Other feared America was headed for a race war
- What would be the "end" brought on by the American Colonization Society?
- Slaves would be brought back to Africa
- Where did the American Colonization Society get its money?
- 1. Charitible contributions
2. State governments
3. Federal government
- Where did the slaves brought back to Africa by the ACS settle?
- What is the capital of Liberia?
- What were the 2 basic problems of the ACS's plan?
- 1. Many people didn't want to go back
2. It was hard to raise money
- WHo created "The Liberator"?
- William Lloyd Garrison
- What did William Lloyd Garrison write?
- The Liberator, an Abolitionist newspaper
- What group did William Lloyd Garrison found?
- American Antislavery Society
- What did Harriet Beecher Stowe write?
- Uncle Tom's Cabin
- What did Frederick Douglass write?
- Narrative on the Life of Frederick Douglass
- What was the Narrative on the Life of Frederick Douglass?
- First hand account of horrors of slavery
- What are the seven steps of the industrial revolution?
- 1. Steam-powered machines
2. Factory system
3. Need for cotton increased
4. Demand for slaves increased
5. Urbanization took place
6. North begins to industrialize
7. Change in how cotton is cleaned
- Who invented the first steam-powered machine?
- James watt
- What system did the Factory System replace?
- "putting out" or domestic
- What is a factory?
- A building that contains both machines and workers
- What became the Cash Crop of the south during the industrial revolution?
- Cotton is a ____ _____ industry.
- Labor intensive
- What is Urbanization?
- growth of cities
- With whom did the industrial revolution begin in America?
- Samuel Slater
- What is Samuel Slater known for?
- First textile Factory in America
- How did Slater know about textile factories?
- He escaped GB, arrived in Rhode Island to start a factory
- Where was Andrew Jackson born?
- South Carolina
- What 8 things is Jackson known for?
- 1. Joined the Continental Army at age thriteen
2. Was captured as a POW
3. Scars on his face and hands, had smallpox
4. Became a lawyer
5. Married a divorcee (Rachel)
6. Killed a guy in a dual in defense of his wife
7. Led the Battle of New Orleans
8. Became a US senator
- Who were the two primary candidates of the 1824 election?
- 1. Andrew Jackson
2. John Quincy Adams
- What happened in the elecdtion of 1824 that was controversial?
- Jackson won by popular vote and electoral votes, but didn't have the majority of the electoral votes
- Who had to decide on the election of 1824?
- House of Representatives
- What was Henry Clay's deal with John Qunicy Adams?
- He would support JQA, who would become president, then JQA would put Henry Clay as Secretary of State
- WHy did Clay want to be secretary of state?
- It was considered "heir to the presidency"
- Why was Jackson ticked off at Clay?
- 1. He should have been chosen as president
2. It appeared as though Clay would be the next president
- What did Jackson call Clay's agreement with John Quincy Adams?
- "corrupt bargain"
- What party did Jackson form?
- Democratic Party
- Who ran in the election of 1828?
- Andrew Jackson (Democrat)
John Quincy Adams (Republican)
- What were three major issues for Jackson to deal with?
- 1. Native Americans
2. War on the Bank
3. Nullification Crisis
- What act moved ultimately moved Cherokee Nation?
- Indian Removal Act
- What are the two parts of the Indian Removal Act?
- 1. Gave the government millions of dollars to use to negotiate treaties
2. Authorized the government to use force if necessary to move the native Americans further west
- What happened that moved people to Georgia?
- Gold was discovered
- What was the treaty between the US and Cherokee Nation?
- 1. US government would pay $5 million
2. Cherokee Nation would move to Oklahoma
- What was the problem with the treaty between the US and Cherokee Nation?
- It wasn't negotiated with leaders, only some followers. Most people didn't agree and refused to move
- What was the name of the movement of Cherokee Nation>?
- Trail of Tears
- What was the trail of tears?
- Jackson sent troups to force people to move from GA to OK
- What were the three steps to the War on the Bank?
- 1. Congress granted the Charter
2. Jackson vetoed it
3. Pulled Federal money out of the National Bank and put it in state banks
- Why did Jackson veto the NB's Charter?
- Disliked the bank because he was a strict constructionist
- Who began the Nullification Crisis?
- John C. Calhoun
- What was John C. Calhoun's role in government and from where was he?
- Vice President under Jackson
- What was the Tariff hated by Calhoun?
- Tariff of 1828
- What is the southern name for the Tariff of 1828?
- "Tariff of Abominations"
- What is a Tariff?
- Tax on imported goods
- Who would benefit from a Tariff?
- The north
- What did Calhoun do in response to the Tariff?
- Resigned and became senator
- What is the idea behind nullification?
- 1. States created the Federal Government
2. States should be superior to Federal Governments
3. States, if they choose, can nullify federal laws
- What document did Calhoun draft?
- Ordinance of Nullification
- Who passed the Ordinance of Nullification?
- government of South Carolina
- What two laws did Jackson get congress to pass?
- 1. Force Bill
2. Compromise of 1833
- What did the Force Bill do?
- Power to use military force to collect taxes called for in South Carolina under the Tariff
- What did the Compromise of 1833 do?
- Lowered the Tariff of 1828
Eventually lowered it to the original amount
- What was the name of the Jackson-hating party?
- What did the Whigs hate about Jackson?
- 1. He killed the National Bank
2. Backed the Tariff of 1828
- Why did Mexico want people to move to Texas?
- Tax money
- Who was the dictator leading Mexico?
- Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
- What happened after Texas declared its independance?
- Santa Anna attacked the Alamo
- What is the name of the battle when Santa Anna attacked the Alamo and how long did it last?
- Battle of the Alamo; 13 days
- How many of the Texans died in the Battle of the Alamo? Who is one of the most famous?
- All 189, Davy Crocket
- In what battle did the Texans attack the Mexican army?
- Battle of San Jacinto
- Who led the Texan army in the Battle of San Jacinto?
- Sam Houston
- Who won the Battle of San Jacinto?
- What was Texas after it was independant of Mexico?
- Republic of Texas
- Who was the president of the Republic of Texas?
- Sam Houston
- What was the problem of admitting TX to the US?
- issue of slavery
- What did America do when texas wanted to be admitted?
- Ignored it for almost 10 years
- What were the conditions of TX entering the US?
- 1. Texas would enter as a slave state
2. Part of TX would be turned over to the Federal Government
3. US government would take Texas's debt
- What was the dispute of the Mexican war?
- WHere is the boundary of Texas?
- Where did the US say Texas's boundary was? Mexico?
- US: Rio Grande
MX: Nueces River
- Who was the US president during the Mexican war?
- James K. Polk
- What did Polk do to protect the border?
- Sent troops
- WHo was the leader of the troops protecting the border?
- General Zachary Taylor
- What was the name of the treaty between US and MX?
- Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo
- What was the significance of the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo?
- Mexico gave territory to the US, virtually all the land of West Texas
- What is the Sectional Crisis?
- Crisis between the North and South US
- What was the name of the plan that said NO slavery would be allowed in the Territory from MX?
- Wilmot Proviso
- Who created the Wilmot Proviso?
- David Wilmot
- Where was David Wilmot from?
- What was the South's plan for Slavery in the territory from MX?
- Slavery allowed in all of the territory
- Why did the South think slavery should be allowed in all of the territory from MX?
- "America" is the people, the territory is owned by the people... you cannot deny citizens of their right to own property
- What two compromises were created in the Sectional Crisis?
- 1. Extend the Missouri Compromise line to the West
2. Squatter Sovereignty
- What is Squatter sovereignty?
- Popular Sovereignty
- Who ran in the Election of 1848 and under what parties?
- Lewis Cass - Democrat
Zachary Taylor - Whigs
Free Soil Party - Martin Van Buren
- What idea did Lewis Cass come up with?
- Squatter Sovereignty
- What was Lewis Cass's role in government before running in 1848?
- Sentator from Michigan
- What didn't Taylor want to take a stand on?
- Who promoted Marti Van Buren?
- What was Martin Van Buren?
- Former democratic president
- Who won the election of 1848 and why?
- Zachary Taylor; the Democrats split their vote
- Who had a saw mill in California?
- John Sutter
- Who worked for John Sutter?
- James Marshall
- What did Marshall discover at Sutter's mill?
- What was Sutter's reaction to the gold at his mill?
- He wasn't very happy
- Who created the Compromise of 1850?
- Henry Clay
- What did the Compromise of 1850 say?
- 1. California admitted as a free state
2. Rest of the territory gained from Mexico would be governed by popular sovereignty
3. Slave trade would be illegal in Washington DC
- Who countered the Compromise of 1850?
- John C. Calhoun
- What did Calhoun say in response to the Compromise of 1850?
- 1. Slavery must be allowed in the territory from Mexico
2. The US needs two presidents, one for the north and one for the south
- What was the Great Debate about?
- Whether or not the Compromise of 1850 would be passed
- Who was responsible for the passing of the Compromise of 1850?
- Zachary Taylor
Stephen A. Douglas
- What did Zachary Taylor say about the Compromise of 1850?
- 1. He would veto any law that dealt with slavery that wouldn't admit CA as a free state
2. If the south votes to secede, he would personally lead the US army to atack any state which did so
- What was Stephen A Douglas' role and what did he do to help pass the compromise of 1850?
- Senator from Illinois
- What bill did Stephen A Douglas write?
- Kansas-Nebraska Act
- What did the Kansas-Nebraska act sayh?
- 1. Turn part of the land into two territories, Nebraska and Kansas
2. Repeal the Missouri Compromise
3. Let popular soveriegnty decide
- What was the new political party stading on one issue?
- Republican party
- What was the issue the Republican party take a stand on?
- Against expansion of slavery into the territories
- Why was Kansas called "bleeding kanasas"?
- so much bloodshed
- Why did pro-slavery candidates get elected for governmental posistions in Kansas?
- Slave owners in missouri voted
- Where did anti-slavery people meet to make their own constitution?
- Where were anti-slavery people arrested as traitors?
- Lawrence, Kansas
- What is John Brown known for?
- What did John Brown believe about himself?
- that he was called by God to abolish slavery
- What did John Brown say about the 5 anti-slavery people that were killed in the looted town?
- They were murdered
- What did Brown say should be done in retalliation to the five people killed?
- Pro-slavery people should be killed
- What did Brown do in retaliation?
- Pottawatomie Massacre
- What was Charles Sumner's governmental position?>
- Sentator from Mass.
- What seech did Sumner give?
- "Crime Against Kansas"
- What did Sumner's speech say?
- 1. Slavery is wrong
2. South is wrong for backing slavery
3. Andrew Butler is wrong for defending slavery
- What was Andrew Butler's position in government?
- Senator from South Carolina
- Who was Andrew Butler's nephew?
- Preston Brooks
- What was Preston Brooks' position in the government and what is he known for?
- House of Representatives - South Carolina
Beat Sumner into uncounciousness
- What was Andrew Butler considered after he beat Sumner?
- Hero of pro-slavery
- What happened after Butler beat Sumner?
- Resigned from the house, ran for senate and was elected
- What three points did the "Free Soil" people sand on?
- 1. Slavery is morally wrong (in the eyes of God)
2. What it did to whites
3. Went against American Values (libery, freedom) - Dec. of independence
- What did Pro-slavery people stand on?
- 1. Blacks are savages and we must be protected from them
2. Works of Professor Thomas R. Dew
- What "proved" that blacks were savages?
- 1. Slave Rebellion in Santo Domingo - 60,000 people killed
2. Nat Turner's rebellion
- What was Professor Thomas R. Dew's argument for slavery?
- 1. Blacks are inferior
2. Slaves in the south are better of that white workers in the north
3. The Bible
4. SOuthern Economy needs it- as does US economy
5. Part of the southern way of life- better than Northern way
- What started a Depression?
- Ending of the Crimean War
- Where did the Europeans get food during the Crimean War?
- What part of the US was helped by the Crimean war?
- THe North
- What were the US's two economies based on?
- North: Food-based
South: Cotton and Tobacco
- What was "proof" that the slave-based economy was better than non-slave based?
- Depression after the Crimean War
- Who was the Dred Scott case between?
- Dred Scott v. Sanford
- Who was Dred Scott?
- Slave in Missouri
- Where had Dred Scott's former master taken him?
- Who was Dred Scott's new owner?
- J.F.A. Sanford
- What was Scott's claim in Dred Scott v. Sanford?
- He should have been free because he was taken to Illinois, a free state
- Who was the chief justice of Dred Scott v. Sanford?
- Roger Taney
- What were the three points of the Dred Scott case?
- 1. Dred Scott is not a US citizen, therefore cannot file suit
2. Blacks are not US citizens
3. Federal government can't deny people the right to own property without due process
- WHat backed up the idea that the Federal government can't deny people the right to own property without due process?
- 5th Amendment
- Where was the Lecampton constitution made?
- Lecampton, KS
- What would the Lecampton Constitution be?
- State Constitution for Kansas
- What side of the slavery issue was the Lecampton Constitution on?
- What happened to the Lecampton Constitution?
- It was voted down
- What ins considered one of th emost important Senate elections?
- Sentate Elections in Illinois
- Who ran in the Senate elections of Illinois and under what parties?
- 1. Stephen A. Douglas - Democrat
2. Abraham Lincoln - Republican
- How were Senators elected?
- State Legislators
- What made Lincoln nationally known?
- Series of debates that he challenged Douglas to (seven)
- What four points did Douglas continually bring up in his debates with Lincoln?
Which were untrue and which were just attacks?
- 1. Republicans are promoting hatred between the sections (attack)
2. Republicans want equality of the races (untrue, attack)
3. Republicans will try to outlaw slavery in the southern states (untrue, attack)
4. Democrats are in favor of popular sovereignty
- What did Lincoln continually bring up? Which was untrue?
- 1. Democrats are going to expand slavery into the North (Untrue)
2. Slavery is wrong
- Who won the debates?
- What was Lincoln's stand on slavery?
- 1. Wrong in the eyes of God
2. Advocate of Free Labor
3. It's anti-democratic
- Why was Lincoln an advocate of Free Labor?
- Good for the economy
- What is Free Labor
- Labor by Free workers
- Where did John Brown move to start a rebellion?
- What town was occupied by John Brown?
- Harpers Ferry
- What part of Harper's Ferry did John Brown capture?
- What was John Brown's plan in Harper's Ferry?
- Capture town, get weapons, find local slaves to help
- How many men were working with John Brown, and how many were taken hostage?
- 21, 60
- WHat was the problem about John Brown's rebellion?
- Slaves didn't come
- Why didn't slaves come to help John Brown?
- 1. Didn't hear about it
2. Couldn't escape
- What was called in to re-capture Harper's Ferry?
- US Army
- Who lead the US Army in the re-capturing of Harper's Ferry?
- Robert E. Lee
- What happened to the men who captured Harper's Ferry?
- Captured and executed
- What was the Significance of Harper's Ferry?
- 1. Convinced people in the South that they weren't safe in the Union
2. Democrats/Southerners said Republicans were behind it (not true)
- Who were the two democratic candidates in the election of 1860?
- 1. Stephen A. Douglas
2. John Breckenridge
- What did Stephen A Douglas stand on in the election of 1860 and who endorsed him?
- Popular sovereignty, Nothern Democrats
- What did John Breckenridge stand on, and hwo endorsed him?
- Slavery being allowed in the territories; Southern Democrats
- Who was the Republican Democrat in the election of 1860?
- Abraham Lincoln
- What did Lincoln stand on in the presidential election?
- Slavery must not be allowed in the states
- Why did Lincoln win the election?
- Democrats split their vote
- Why did the Southern states think they had the right to secede?
- The states freely chose to enter the union, therefore they may freely choose to leave
- What Analogy was used to describe secession?
- Analogy of Marriage
- Who was the first state to secede?
- South Carolina
- When did South carolina secede?
- After the election but before Lincoln took office
- Who was the president before lincoln/party?
- James Buchanan/Deomocrat
- WHat was Buchanan's response to the states seceding?
- You can't do that! But I don't think the Federal Government can make you stay...
- The Civil war is known as the ________ war the US has ever participate in.
- Why would the N. Fight the civil war?
- To preserve the Union
- Where did the Civil War begin?
- Fort Sumter
- Where is Fort Sumter?
- Small island in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina
- Where did Federal governments ave posts?
- Each State
- What were seceding states taking over?
- Federal Posts
- Why did South Carolina send people to washington, DC?
- To ask Buchanan to hand over the Fort
- Who led soldiers at Fort Sumter?
- Major Robert Anderson
- What unarmored supply ship was sent to the Fort?
- Star of the West
- What was on the Star of the West?
- Supplies and soldiers
- What did South Carolina do with the Star of the West?
- Opened Fire
- What three things did Lincoln state in his Inaugural Address?
- 1. Southern States don't have the right to secede
2. Anyone who uses violence in support of secession is a revolutionary
3. We will not give up Federal property in Southern States
- What country did the seceded states form?
- Confederated States of America
- What's another name for the Confederated States of America?
- The Confederacy
- Who was the president of the Confederated States of America?
- Jefferson Davis
- WHat would happen if Anderson and his men left Fort Sumter?
- It'd look like they're caving in
- WHat would happen if Lincoln didn't send reinforecement to fort sumter?
- It would show the confederacy he's weak and won't stand up to them
- What did Lincoln do for the troops at Fort Sumter?
- Sent support
- WHat would happen if the confederacy attacked F. sumter? (from their point of view)
- They'd appear to be the agressor and look bad to people in the North and other countries
- What would happen if the Confederacy duidn't attack Ft Sumter?
- They'd appear to be caving in
- What did the Confederacy tell Anderson to do?
- Who was the general that told ANderson to surrender?
- General P.G.T. Beauregard
- Who won the Battle of Ft. Sumter?
- Where were people angry about their state seceding from the Union?
- What did the Mountain Virginians do?
- Seceded from Virginia, formed West Virginia
- What four advantages did the North have in the war?
- 1. Manpower
2. Industrial production
4. Production of food
- What could the North produce more of than the south?
- Weapons of war, food
- How many miles of track did the North have compared to the south?
- 20,000 v. 10,000
- What four advantages did the South have?
- 1. Defense of their own land
2. North has long supply lines, South's are short
3. South was more unified in their desire to fight
4. Cotton (GB and France)
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