Glossary of 1118 FINAL

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Profit Childcare
run by an independent owner and corporate systems (Chains). The profit goes to owners.
Non-profit Childcare:
individual programs run by parent-board of directors and operated by community agencies. Profit goes back into the program.
age groupings
Infants: 0-18months
Toddlers: 18-35 months
Preschool: 3-5 years
Kindergarten: 5 years
Primary: 6-8
School age: 6-12

How do some workplace employers support their employees to have access to child care?
Employers can provide a childcare (ie: hospital, big companies)
Offset costs or subsidize costs.
Do all children have the option to send children to regulated child care?
No. not enough spaces available.
Regulated childcare spaces for BC is less than 12% for 0-5 years. In Canada its 19% from 0-12 years old. Cost and Income , Where you live and where the centers are : you need childcare to be close to home and close to work.
why not all children have registered childcare
>$$$ = huge barrier for families, cc is #2 expense for families after housing
>$$$ = huge barrier for opening a licensed cc centre, government funding is not enough currently
>lack of employer support for some families, lack of cc in some areas, child may have extra support needs & trained prof caregivers are unavailable/expensive
Some places unregulated because of standards that they can't afford. (ie: fence in the front)

Why do we set up learning centres?
It creates an interesting inviting and safe place for children to be. Supports and develops children's overall development. Meets basic needs. Lower incidents of conflicts.
how to set up learning centres
Juxtapose centres that address similar goals and types of play. Separate clean and messy areas. Prioritize space of centres according to developmental needs. Portable storage units close to learning centres. Insure learning centres are clearly visible from path. Clarify limits and roles for each centre. Account for practical details such as doors and windows. Vary textures and colours so that it is warm and comfortable. Consider natural light. Create a multicultural learning environment in all centres.
why are learning centres valuable
If children are spending their daytime hours in disorganized spaces, it will affect their behaviour and who they become. Active involvement of children, individualization (developmental abilities, interests, learning styles) Small groups learn better from eachother. They know where to go. Promotes mastery in related activities.
What to consider when selecting materials for play and learning
Natural materials, open-ended materials, bring in natural items (feathers, leaves, rocks), safe and developmentally appropriate. Flexible playability which allows to adapt toy to developmental needs and extends time played with toy. Toys should be a good match of structure to child's developing symbolic concepts. Structure is degree that the object resembles symbolic concept. Multiples of the same toys when they are younger.
“The learning center approach provides an intentional strategy for the active involvement of children, experienced based learning and individualization in relation to children's developmental abilities, interests and learning styles”
Things are available for children so that they can choose what they would like to do and how far they want to take it. They will be drawn to certain things based on their learning styles and interests. It is different from teacher directed activities that are chosen for each child without considering individuality and different developmental levels.

what to consider when designing an early childhood classroom?
The view from the door. They must feel safe and secure which dictates how well they will transfer from home to the daycare centre. Comfortable and cozy. Cubbies, to place belongings in designated spots. Objects of high interest are placed near the door for transition and greeting. Theme or topic posted near the door. Transition area like the book corner for parents to sit down and spend a little time with their child during transition. Natural materials, natural light. Children's work on walls. Family pictures. Materials should be accessible on low shelving. Environment aesthetically pleasing. Pathway. Textures and shapes. Flexible to expand area when there are more children. Open ended materials. Tile under messier areas, carpets under cozy areas or gross motor. Cultural items. Learning centres should be compatible when near eachother.
Learning centres
Creative Discovery
Roleplay zone
Concept learning zone

Roleplay Zone
Active role play
Daily living centre
concept learning zone
Quiet thinking area
Block area (sometimes)

creative discovery area
Art area
Sciencing area
Block area

"climate" in the room
Refers to the affective (social and emotional) conditions that contribute to an overall mood and culture in an environment. Emotional warmth, friendliness, a sense of physical and psychological safety and social accepptance are some elements of climate which foster happy play settings and contribute to learning and growth.
how teachers influence climate
Physical space is clean and aesthetically pleasing, homelike, inviting with a variety of natural materials, multicultural materials, colours textures and surfaces, and childsized. The mood of the teacher.
schedule for climate
informal activities to provide opportunities for acquiring physical, social conventional, and logical mathematical knowledge.
Children can choose activities that suit their pace of development, interest and learning style which includes a wide selection of child centred activities, feels unhurried and flexible, shows respect for others, incorporates individual play in small and large groups, provides for active and quiet play. The transitions should be planned so that they aren't too rushed and there aren't too many unnecessary transitions to allow for longer free play. Give warnings.
what change about a schedule
Would walk around and let children know about transitions individually, and station teachers during transitions. Involve the children in cleanup, dressing and washroom etc. Start cleanups sooner in large areas in complex play. Children need more warning. Transition is important part of schedule. Remove unnecessary planning transition and do it during snack time.
Children's needs to be met with schedule
Schedule needs a natural rhythm
meet physical needs: snack, nap, bathroom, active/quiet time
meet social needs to form relationships and friendships. Individual/small/large groups/uninterupted play.
Meet cognitive needs: leaerning, discovery
meet emotional needs: security, which changes during year. Developing sense of self concept.
Creative needs; imagination, express creatively and time.

Adult needs with schedule
Better climate if needs are met – calm
Spend time with children
within ratio, staff shifts.
Certain tasks are getting done, assigned to specific shift.
Planning/prep meeting time
time to meet with parents
schedule should reflect goals of program
increase in length of group time before kindergarten.
Routines such as arrive, departing, dressing undressing, eating, napping
routines should be related to family and culture and emotional wellbeing.
Aware of own perception
decisions depend on expectation
how you will honor diversity
help children adjust to routines.

WHy should schedules be flexible?
flexible schedules that change during the year (seasonal)
: more time to say hi and bye at beginning, earlier inside time in winter.
Change schedule depending on children
increase in length of group time before kindergarten.
Incidental learning can change activities and schedule.
routines might take longer in the beginning, more time between activities.

awareness of differences with routines
So you can help them adjust at individual level. Make children and families feel welcome by honoring cultural differences and realizing that there can be differences and not necessarily a bad thing. Modelling an acceptance of diversity for the children.
self esteem
a value judgement one makes about ones personal worth based on how one sees and accepts one's characteristics.
self concept
the picture one has of oneself, incorporating knowledge of physical and personal characteristics, gender and ethnic awareness and a sense of one's capabilities and limitations.

How children develop sense of self
You develop a sense of self beginning birth and whether your parents respond with emotions of love connection and protection. Parents and teachers influence the view of yourself and whether you are worthy for care and respect
You develop a sense of yourself when you form your self-concept, self-esteem and self-regulatory behavior.
three components of development of self esteem
feeling lovable and loved
feeling valued and protected
feeling competent and autonomous

feeling loved and lovable
degree of love, concern, acceptance and interest that children are shown impaccts the development of self esteem. Genuine caring is noticed and imitated.
feeling valued and protected
The way parents comfort child is important as their play with the child. They know they are safe to express selves. Instills ability to show caring and empathy towards others. Select appropriate strategies for child to be successful.
feeling competent and autonomous
repeated experiences in successfully mastering skills and abilities enhance self esteem and our children to solve their own problems.

how teachers can make children feel loved
teacher can model genuine caring
floor time between child and practitioner can include peers and become a vehicle for modelling and coaching kindness social and prosocial skills.
When needed practitioners can model strategies for for following child's lead giving meaningful feedback and insuring that the childs perspective is acknowledged.

How children feel valued and protected
Providing a safe environment for them. Children who are upset can count in caring adult to help them deal with it. Assist child to be successful in managing challenging situations.
helping children feel competent
When parents and practitioners provide experiences so that children can be successful, children experience pride, confidence and self esteem increases.
With feedback on accomplishment.
Incorporating items in the classroom from different cultures to integrate different cultures to allow exposure to diversity and awareness of own cultures (increases self esteem)

Choose materials that reflect cultural diversity, racial balance, linguistic diversity, family diversity, gender balance, socio-economic conditions, special needs, variety of settings (rural vs. city), comparisons (compare everyday with everyday, traditional with traditional etc.)
It is better to integrate exposure within the environment instead of focusing on how different it is.

superhero play
Children use play to work out an understanding of experience, including violence to which they are exposed. toys are highly structured and linked to violent media. children replicate the violent stories they see on screen.

Bans that were used to impose on war play no longer work. They lie about it or sneak around and learn to deceive.

Ensure safety of all children: involve children in developing rules for indoor and outdoor play that ensure safety. Encourage to paint tell stories and write to deal with issues of violence. Try to correct misconceptions, help sort out fantasy and reality, and provide reassurance about safety.
Take time to observe play and learn what children are working on and how. Use info to help children move beyond narrowly scripted play that focuses on violent actions.

Encourage children to move from imitative to creative play so can transform violence into positive behaviour. Talk to them about what happened in play.

Reduce child's exposure to violence to reduce need to bring violence into play. Family involvement is vital.

Access (inclusion)
wide range of learning opportunities, activities, settings and environments that facilitate the involvement of all children. Participation is enhanced when adults promote belonging, participation and engagement of children with disabilities with typically developing peers.
supports (inclusion)
system-level supports that are necessary to ensure ethat individual and program efforts are successful, including access to ongoing professional development, collab among stakeholders (families, practitioners, specialists), program policies, and coordination with specialized services and therapists.
What ECE'rs require for inclusion
mix of resources and supports within the centre. (accessible environment with specialized equipment and materials, staff who are knowledgeable, time to plan and participate in development of program plans with community specialists and who form an effective team, support and leadership provided by program director) and supports provided to program by specialists and therapists and through funding to reduce adult child rations with staff who have specialized training.

Three dimensions of inclusion quality
practices that confirm the use of explicit, written principles that support full inclusion in environments that are accessible and have materials to support inclusion.
Practices that reflect individualized attention to the needs of children with disabilities and their parents.
Practices that illustrate the centre director's active role in providing leadership, mentoring and support for inclusion.

6 key principles for inclusion
Zero reject, no exclusion.
Natural proportions – programs include children with disabilities in rough proportion to presence in population.
Full participation
same range of program options
maximum feasible parent participation.
Pro-action for community inclusion -staff and parents promote inclusion in whole community.

Practices critical to inclusion quality
including adjustments and modifications to physical environment, equipment and materials, attitude and involvement, staff supoprt, training, therapies, program plans, parents, involvement of typical children, boards of similar units, and preparing for transition to school
Negative effects of media
Deaden's imagination and social interaction skills. Puts children in a passive role where they absorb everything instead of stimulating imagination.
If child wasn't watching tv etc. He'd be playing to develop own concepts and working on problem solving, creativity and increase ability to negotiate with others.
Violent Media
leads to desensitization. A preference for violent imagery.
Characters define understanding of good and evil. Media conveys message that violence is an acceptable way of solving conflict if motive is good.
What teachers can do regarding violent media based play
talk to children about personalities of characters. More complex than good and evil. Powers that they have. Help imagine non-violent alternatives to resolve conflict.
Children and stereotypes in media
Milestone for children is to establish positive feelings toward people, however media ads show fewer children of colour and girls and often they are on the side as mascots and companions.

Children from different families etc. view media differently.

Commercials and Children
disguised as children's cartoons convince that they can't play themes without purchasing the toys. Characters have features designed to make children believe they need to own complete set.
Children don't have life experience to make consumer choices by asking “will this toy last or how will i use it?”
Children who have experienced media literacy lessons engage in less violent behaviour because children don't have developed sense of what is fantasy or what is reality particularly when confronted with special effects.
Reduced television viewing amont 8-10 year olds made 70% fewer toy requests.

How we learn identity (gender)
through telling stories, playing roles, critiquing performances and being critiqued by others. Reshape stories and roles as we interact with others and ourselves.
Why children have rigid gender role play
Children understand that there are complex roles for real people, but in order for satisfactory development of community and pulling individuals into the group a broad and crude theme is agreed upon.
Play evolves and expands with a spirit of generosity. New characters are introduced and welcomed. Plot twists are suggested and songs are sung and accepted.
Our job with gender
to facilitate the dialogue to question and to listen. We need to challenge our own assumptions and theirs and to help create spaces for the “other”
Play differences between boys and girls.
Girls: family romance is paramount, babies, marriage etc. Boys rarely speak of relationship other than that of a friend with whom they more than likely battled in one of their stories. Gender related social hierarchy in allegation of roles in children's stories.
Willingness to engage in play is associated with members of opposite sex. Boy wont play a prince because it's associated with girls play. If time is lengthened, boys become more willing to engage in quiet table activities. Teachers expect children to have their own choices because important to development.
Socioeconomic Status/Class
the economic and social conditions under which people live, which can determine access to financial security and social situations. It changes over time and mixed class experiences are common.

How socioeconomic class affects children.

Access to quality food, nontoxic housing, optimal preventive health care, treatment of illness, quality education affect development. Young children learn value-based, biased messages about socioeconomic status both directly and indirectly (family, media)

How teacher support socioeconomic status

Provide accurate and balanced images, info and activities about all kinds of work and life patterns. Check your own beliefs and attitudes about socioeconomic class.
Books and posters are often biased. Support contributions of all jobs.

Teach about unpaid work that is done at home by men, women and help of children.
Sensory materials that aren't food. Smocks to not dirty clothes.

Support families with different socioeconomic status.
Support families by writing letters to employers about time off to visit centre. Acknowledge support people that work with your program.
Recognize child and family resilience. Make sure you have same high expectations for children. Working partner with families to support strengths rather than “saving” children.
Encourage value of internal, nonmaterial qualities like kindness, empathy, and generosity. Invite children to share experiences rather than showing objects.
Welcoming environments that reflect lives of families and community. Open door policy, welcoming and sensitive. Get to know neighbourhoods for materials and field trips. Set up family room/resource center. Be sensitive about home visits, suggest other locations. Compile list of resources in community.

Sense of Self triangle
become separate
object permanence
recognizes self
self assertion
talks about self
acts proud or ashamed
tries other roles in play
realize inner thoughts private
measures self esteem by physical accomplishments
can describe attributes of self: boy/girl, tall, smart
comparing with peers
self evaluation based on others thoughts

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